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Vol. 31. Issue 2.
Pages 60-70 (April - June 2020)
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Vol. 31. Issue 2.
Pages 60-70 (April - June 2020)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.enfie.2019.03.004
Burnout syndrome in intensive care professionals: Relationships with health status and wellbeing
Síndrome de burnout en los profesionales de cuidados intensivos: relaciones con la salud y el bienestar
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O. Arrogantea,
Corresponding author
oarrogan@nebrija.es

Corresponding author.
, E.G. Aparicio-Zaldivarb
a Departamento de Enfermería, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud San Rafael, Universidad Antonio de Nebrija, Madrid, Spain
b Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain
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Tables (4)
Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the intensive care professionals (n=52).
Table 2. Descriptive statistics of the psychological variables analysed in intensive care professionals (n=52).
Table 3. Correlations between physical/mental health, Subjective/psychological well-being and the three dimensions of burnout in the intensive care professionals (n=52).
Table 4. Dimensions of burnout predictors of physical/mental health of the subjective/psychological well-being perceived by the intensive care professionals (n=52).
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Abstract
Objectives

To determine the predictive models that include the dimensions of burnout that are predictors for physical/mental health, and subjective/psychological wellbeing perceived in intensive care professionals; to analyse the relationships between burnout syndrome, health status and wellbeing experienced by these professionals; and to establish sociodemographic differences in the variables evaluated.

Method

A correlational and cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 52 critical care professionals, mainly nurses, were recruited from an intensive care unit of Madrid. All participants were assessed with the questionnaires: Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, Short Form-12 Health Survey, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Psychological Well-Being Scales.

Results

No significant sociodemographic differences were found. High levels in the three burnout dimensions were associated with poor physical/mental health and subjective/psychological wellbeing. High scores in emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, and low in personal accomplishment negatively predicted subjective and psychological well-being scales. The self-acceptance scale had the highest predictive validity. Emotional exhaustion was the only burnout dimension that negatively predicted physical and mental health.

Conclusions

Health status and levels of subjective/psychological wellbeing can be negatively influenced by the burnout syndrome experienced by intensive care professionals. As a result, the implementation of programmes to prevent and treat this syndrome is needed. These preventive interventions can positively impact not only the health and wellbeing of these professionals, but can also improve their ability to practice effectively, improve healthcare quality and patient security, and reduce the economic costs of health institutions. It is therefore imperative to implement burnout preventive programmes for intensive care professionals from universities to health institutions.

Keywords:
Burnout
Health status
Intensive care units
Nursing
Physicians
Wellbeing
Resumen
Objetivos

Determinar los modelos predictivos que incluyan las dimensiones del burnout predictoras de la salud física/mental y del bienestar subjetivo/psicológico percibido en profesionales de intensivos; analizar las relaciones entre el síndrome de burnout, la salud y el bienestar percibido por dichos profesionales; y establecer las diferencias sociodemográficas en las variables evaluadas.

Método

Se llevó a cabo un estudio correlacional de corte trasversal. Participaron un total de 52 profesionales de intensivos, principalmente enfermeras, de una unidad de cuidados intensivos de Madrid. Todos los participantes fueron evaluados mediante los cuestionarios Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, Short Form-12 Health Survey, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule y Psychological Well-Being Scales.

Resultados

No se encontraron diferencias sociodemográficas significativas. Los altos niveles en las tres dimensiones del burnout estuvieron asociados con una pobre salud física/mental y bienestar subjetivo/psicológico. Las altas puntuaciones en agotamiento emocional y despersonalización y bajas en realización personal predijeron negativamente las escalas del bienestar subjetivo y psicológico. La escala de autoaceptación obtuvo la mayor validez predictiva. El agotamiento emocional fue la única dimensión del burnout que predijo negativamente la salud física y mental.

Conclusiones

La salud y el bienestar pueden estar afectados negativamente por el síndrome de burnout de los profesionales de intensivos. Como resultado, es necesaria la implantación de programas para prevenir y tratar este síndrome. Estas intervenciones preventivas no solamente pueden influir positivamente en la salud y bienestar de estos profesionales, sino que también pueden mejorar la práctica clínica, la calidad de la atención y los cuidados prestados y la seguridad del paciente y reducir los costes económicos de las instituciones sanitarias. Por lo tanto, es imperativo implementar programas preventivos dirigidos a los profesionales de intensivos desde las universidades hasta las instituciones sanitarias.

Palabras clave:
Bienestar
Burnout
Enfermería
Estado de salud
Médicos
Unidades de cuidados intensivos

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