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Vol. 29. Issue 3.
Pages 186-194 (May - June 2019)
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Vol. 29. Issue 3.
Pages 186-194 (May - June 2019)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcle.2018.10.001
Quality of work life and self-care in nursing staff with high emotional demand
Calidad de vida laboral y autocuidado en enfermeras asistenciales con alta demanda emocional
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Gabriel Vidal-Blancoa,
Corresponding author
Gabriel.vidal@uv.es

Corresponding author.
, Amparo Oliverb, Laura Galianab, Noemí Sansóc
a Departamento de Enfermería, Facultad de Enfermería y Podología, Universitat de València , Valencia, Spain
b Departamento de Metodología de Ciencias del Comportamiento, Facultad de Psicología, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain
c Departamento de Enfermería y Fisioterapia, Facultad Enfermería y Fisioterapia, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Table 1. Interview.
Table 2. Identification and duration of the interview: sex of the respondent/age/years of occupational life/years of experience in the department-unit/department-unit/interview number.
Table 3. Textual citations from the content of the interviews: examples of evidence used in the process of analysis for categorising and coding the data.
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Abstract
Objective

To explore the variables related to the quality of work life and the self-care of nursing professionals working with high emotional demand.

Method

Qualitative, according to the constructivist paradigm. It combines the phenomenological-hermeneutic/interpretative method with the use of semi-structured interviews. Information was analysed with Maxqda 11. Interviews included professionals from the Valencian healthcare system, with typical profiles of nurses working in surgical units, emergencies, oncology, home care, and cooperation.

Results

Organisational factors were reported as a barrier to self-care, affecting healthcare activity. Working with patients was highlighted as a protective factor, based on the satisfaction derived from helping in situations of serious illness and suffering. The quality of work life manifested was assessed as not being what they would desire and deficient. The factors that affected the professionals most were the type of working day and work schedules (shifts, nights, holidays, on call,...). The physical, mental and social dimensions of self-care can attenuate the negative effects of this situation.

Conclusions

It is necessary to examine in depth the construct of self-care, to counteract emotionally stressful problems and situations, to propose intervention strategies, training plans and greater involvement of health institutions in the improvement of nurses’ quality of work life.

Keywords:
Occupational health
Self-care
Nursing
Burnout
Job satisfaction
Empathy
Resumen
Objetivo

Explorar las variables relacionadas con la calidad de vida laboral y el autocuidado de profesionales de enfermería en situaciones estresantes y con alta demanda emocional.

Método

Cualitativo, según el paradigma constructivista, combinando el método fenomenológico-hermenéutico/interpretativo mediante el uso de entrevistas semiestructuradas. La información fue analizada con Maxqda 11. Las entrevistas se realizaron a profesionales de centros sanitarios y servicios de Valencia con perfiles característicos de enfermería en unidades médico-quirúrgicas, urgencias, oncología, atención domiciliaria, y de ayuda humanitaria.

Resultados

Los factores organizativos se expresaron como barrera para el autocuidado, afectando a la actividad asistencial. Como factor protector, se señala el trato con pacientes, basado en la satisfacción que genera la relación de ayuda en situaciones de gravedad, y sufrimiento. La valoración de la calidad de vida laboral manifestada no fue la deseada y resulta deficiente. Los factores que más afectan se refieren al tipo de jornada laboral y los horarios de trabajo (turnos rodados, noches, festivos, guardias…). Las dimensiones física, psíquica y social del autocuidado, pueden atenuar los efectos negativos de esta situación.

Conclusiones

Es necesario profundizar en el constructo del autocuidado, para contrarrestar los problemas y situaciones emocionalmente estresantes, plantear estrategias de intervención, planes formativos y una mayor implicación de las instituciones sanitarias en la mejora de la calidad de vida laboral de enfermería.

Palabras clave:
Salud laboral
Autocuidado
Enfermería
Agotamiento profesional
Satisfacción en el trabajo
Empatía

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