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Vol. 95. Issue 8.
Pages 386-395 (August 2020)
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Vol. 95. Issue 8.
Pages 386-395 (August 2020)
Review
Autoimmune and demyelinating optic neuritis
Neuritis ópticas desmielinizantes y autoinmunes
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A. García Ortegaa,
Corresponding author
albertogarciaortega83@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, F.J. Montañez Camposa, S. Muñozb, B. Sanchez-Dalmauc
a Servicio de Oftalmología, Sección de Neuroftalmología y Estrabismos, Hospital Universitari Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
b Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Consultora de Neuroftalmología, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
c Unidad de Neurooftalmología, Institut Clínic d’Oftalmología (ICOF), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain
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Tables (8)
Table 1. Summary of differential epidemiological characteristics of typical and atypical ON.3
Table 2. Summary of differential clinical characteristics of typical and atypical ON.3
Table 3. ON conversion risk in MS.10
Table 4. Petzold Classification Autoimmune Optical Neuropathies 2014.23
Table 5. Neuroimmunological classification of demyelinating syndromes in the central nervous system.
Table 6. International diagnostic criteria for NMO 201526.
Table 7. Main clinical differential characteristics of ON by MS, NMO and MOGopathies.24,33,42,43GLC ganglion cell layer IPL Internal plexiform layer.
Table 8. Other diseases with optic neuritis in the context of autoimmune demyelination.5
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Abstract

The knowledge on demyelinating and autoimmune optic neuropathies has experienced a revolution the last decade since the discovery of anti-aquaporin 4 antibody. Improvements in diagnostic techniques, and the finding of new targets, along with advances in neuroimmunology have led to the detection of antibodies related to demyelinating diseases. A review is presented on the classical and new concepts in optic neuritis. The debate on the classification of demyelinating and autoimmune optic neuritis is presented. Furthermore, the updated diagnostic criteria in multiple sclerosis and neuro-myelitis optics are described. Finally, the latest insights into Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) disorders and chronic-recurring optic neuropathies (CRION) are highlited.

Keywords:
Optic neuritis
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)
MOG-opathy
CRION
Anti-MOG antibody
Resumen

El conocimiento sobre las neuropatías ópticas desmielinizantes y autoinmunes ha experimentado una revolución en la útima década tras el descubrimiento de los anticuerpos anti-acuaporina 4 (AQP4). Las mejoras en las técnicas diagnósticas, el descubrimiento de nuevas dianas y el avance de la neuro-inmunología ha permitido la detección de anticuerpos asociados a las enfermedades desmielinizantes. Se presenta una revisión de los conceptos clásicos y nuevos de las neuritis ópticas desmielinizantes y autoimmunes. Se describe el debate en las constantes reformulaciones de su clasificación. Asimismo se actualizan los criterios diagnósticos de la esclerosis múltiple y de la neuromielitis óptica. Finalmente, se presentan los nuevos conceptos sobre las MOG-opatías y las neuropatías opticas inflamatorias crónico-recurrentes (CRION).

Palabras clave:
Neuritis ópticas
Esclerosis múltiple (MS)
Neuromielitis óptica (NMO)
MOGopatía
CRION
Anticuerpos anti-MOG

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