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Inicio Allergologia et Immunopathologia Development of a tool for screening adverse food reactions and food allergy in P...
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Vol. 47. Issue 4.
Pages 342-349 (July - August 2019)
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Vol. 47. Issue 4.
Pages 342-349 (July - August 2019)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2018.09.008
Development of a tool for screening adverse food reactions and food allergy in Portuguese children
A. Jorgea,b, M. Santos Silvac, C. Lozoya-Ibáneza,d, F. Lorentee, E. Sarinhof, R.M. Afonsog, H. Pereirag, L. Taborda-Barataa,h,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
a CICS – Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Avenida Infante D. Henrique, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal
b Department of Paediatrics, Cova da Beira Hospital Centre, Covilhã, Portugal
c Quality Management Unit, Cova da Beira Hospital Centre, Covilhã, Portugal
d Allergy Department, Castelo Branco Local Health Unit, Castelo Branco, Portugal
e Department of Pediatrics, Salamanca University Hospital, Spain
f Center for Research in Allergy and Clinical Immunology (HC/UFPE), Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
g Psychology and Education Department, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
h Department of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, Cova da Beira Hospital Centre, Covilhã, Portugal
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Table 1. Assessment of reproducibility of a screening questionnaire for the detection of adverse food reactions and food allergy.
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Introduction and objectives

A standardised questionnaire may be an excellent tool for epidemiological studies aiming at screening children with suspected food allergies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a screening questionnaire for assessing children with suspected food allergy and to analyse its reproducibility.

Materials and methods

A questionnaire of adverse food reactions was developed by literary review of similar questionnaires validated in other countries as well as less well defined, non-validated Portuguese questionnaires. Peer review of the questionnaire by a panel of specialists and subsequent exploratory analysis was carried out by applying the questionnaire in children with confirmed food allergy. Test–retest analysis was performed by giving a face-to-face questionnaire to 159 children with suspected adverse food reactions, aged between three and 11 years. Temporal stability using Spearman Rho correlation test and reproducibility was studied using Cohen's Kappa index.


115 children confirmed adverse food reactions that occurred with one or more foods. Retest was given about three weeks after the test, to 50 of these children who were randomly selected. The questionnaire showed good temporal stability (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.834), and good reproducibility (only two of the 27 items had a Kappa index <0.60).


This questionnaire showed good temporal stability and reproducibility. Its validation for screening children with suspected food allergy will allow a standardised approach to diagnosis and comparison of results obtained in different centres.

Adverse food reaction
Food allergy
Temporal stability


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