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Vol. 72. Issue 4.
Pages 222-229 (July - August 2021)
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Vol. 72. Issue 4.
Pages 222-229 (July - August 2021)
Original article
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in cigar smokers. Distinctive epidemiological and prognostic characteristics
Pacientes fumadores de cigarros con carcinomas escamosos de cabeza y cuello. Características epidemiológicas y pronósticas diferenciales
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Xavier Leóna,b,
Corresponding author
xleon@santpau.cat

Corresponding author.
, Gerard Pujalsa, Constanza Bulboaa, Jacinto Garcíaa, Montserrat Lópeza, Miquel Quera,b
a Servicio de Otorrinolaringología, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
b Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Madrid, Spain
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Figures (2)
Tables (3)
Table 1. Distribution of smokers, according to type of tobacco consumption (the percentages express the distribution in the columns).
Table 2. Distribution of tumour sublocations and local and regional spread for each tumour location, according to whether the patient was a cigarette or a cigar smoker (the percentages express the distribution in the columns).
Table 3. Results of the multivariate study.
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Abstract
Objective

The objective of this study is to assess the existence of differences in the epidemiological characteristics and prognosis of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who smoke cigars.

Material and methods

We carried out a retrospective study of a cohort of 4500 patients with HNSCC treated during the period 1985–2017.

Result

The proportion of cigar smokers was 2.4%, compared with 88.3% of cigarette smokers and 9.3% of non-smokers. There was an increase in the proportion of cigar smokers throughout the study period. With respect to cigarette smokers, cigar smokers had a higher proportion of male patients, a higher average age at diagnosis, and they had a higher frequency of tumours located in the oral cavity and hypopharynx. The results of a univariate analysis showed that the disease-specific survival of cigar smokers was lower than that of the other patients. Five-year disease-specific survival of cigar smokers was 60.9%, compared to 69.0% for non-smokers, 72.8% for smokers of less than 20 cigarettes/day, and 67.2% for smokers of more than 20 cigarettes/day. There were differences in the pattern of survival depending on tobacco consumption based on the location of the primary tumour.

Conclusions

A 2.4% of patients with HNSCC had a history of regular consumption of cigars. Disease-specific survival of cigar smokers was lower than that of other patients.

Keywords:
Cigars
Cigarettes
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Prognosis
Epidemiology
Resumen
Objetivo

El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar la existencia de diferencias en las características epidemiológicas y el pronóstico de los pacientes fumadores de cigarros con carcinomas escamosos de cabeza y cuello (CECC).

Material y métodos

Estudio retrospectivo de una cohorte de 4.500 pacientes con CECC tratados durante el periodo 1985–2017.

Resultado

La proporción de fumadores de cigarros fue del 2,4%, frente a un 88,3% de fumadores de cigarrillos y 9,3% de no fumadores. Se observó un incremento en la proporción de fumadores de cigarros a lo largo del periodo de estudio. En relación a los fumadores de cigarrillos, los fumadores de cigarros contaron con una mayor proporción de pacientes varones, una edad media de diagnóstico más avanzada, y una mayor frecuencia de tumores localizados en cavidad oral e hipofaringe. El resultado de un estudio univariante mostró que la supervivencia específica de los fumadores de cigarros fue inferior a la del resto de pacientes. La supervivencia específica a los 5 años fue del 60.9% para los fumadores de cigarros, del 69,0% para los no fumadores, del 72,8% para los fumadores de menos de 20 cigarrillos/día, y del 67,2% para los fumadores de más de 20 cigarrillos/día. Existieron diferencias en el patrón de supervivencia dependiendo del consumo de tabaco en función de la localización del tumor primario.

Conclusiones

Un 2,4% de los pacientes con CECC contaron como antecedente el consumo habitual de cigarros. La supervivencia específica de los pacientes fumadores de cigarros fue inferior a la del resto de pacientes.

Palabras clave:
Cigarros
Cigarrillos
Carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello
Pronóstico
Epidemiología

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