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Vol. 16. Núm. 1.
Páginas 25-35 (Enero - Marzo 2012)
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Vol. 16. Núm. 1.
Páginas 25-35 (Enero - Marzo 2012)
DOI: 10.1016/S2173-1292(12)70068-6
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Necesidades proteicas de los deportistas y pautas diétetico-nutricionales para la ganancia de masa muscular
Protein needs in athletes and dietary-nutrition guidelines to gain muscle mass
Visitas
...
Aritz Urdampilletaa,b,??
Autor para correspondencia
aritzurdampi@hotmail.com

Autor para correspondencia.
, Néstor Vicente-Salarc, José Miguel Martínez Sanzd
a Departamento de Farmacia y Ciencias de los Alimentos, Universidad del País Vasco, España
b Departamento de Educación Física y Deportiva, Universidad del País Vasco, España
c Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Alicante, España
d Programa de Tecnificación de Triatlón, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, España
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Resumen

Uno de los efectos más importantes del entrenamiento de la fuerza es el aumento de la hipertrofia muscular. Para compensar sus limitaciones genéticas, los deportistas deben tratar de optimizar los recursos dietético-nutricionales. El objetivo de la presente revisión es analizar la evidencia científica del aporte proteico del deportista según las diferentes modalidades deportivas. Dependiendo del gasto y el aporte energéticos del deportista, el aporte total de proteínas de la ingesta energética diaria suele suponer un 10–15%; sin embargo, es preferible calcular la cantidad proteica necesaria por kg de peso corporal de cada individuo en concreto y según la disciplina deportiva. En este sentido, se estima que para mantener la masa muscular los deportistas deben consumir 1,2–1,8g de proteínas/kg/día, y para aumentarla (0,5kg masa muscular/semana) deben mantener una ingesta proteica de 1,6–1,8g de proteína/kg/día, con un aumento de 400–500 kcal en su dieta habitual, entendiendo que estas necesidades variarán según la modalidad deportiva, la destrucción muscular generada, la masa muscular del atleta y los depósitos de glucógeno. Es importante señalar que los depósitos de glucógeno muscular y hepático vacíos aumentarían las necesidades proteicas para mantener la masa muscular. Un exceso de ingesta de proteínas (> 2g/kg/día) con las reservas de glucógeno agotadas podría causar un aumento de la concentración de cuerpos cetónicos y urea, y producir, entre otros, deshidratación precoz del deportista.

Palabras clave:
Músculos
Hipertrofia
Proteínas
Deportes
Ejercicio
Suplemento dietético deporte
Requerimientos nutricionales
Abstract

One of the most important effects of strength training is muscular hypertrophy. Athletes should optimize their nutritional management in order to compensate their own genetic limitations. The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific evidence concerning protein intake as a tool to achieve muscle hypertrophy. Depending on the expenditure and energy intake of athlete, a daily protein ranging between 10–15% of total dietary intake is needed. However in sports diets, it is preferable to estimate the amount of protein needed per kilogram of body weight in each individual. In this regard athletes should ingest an amount between 1.2g and 1.8g of proteins/kg of body mass/day to maintain their lean mass. In order to increase muscle mass (0.5kg/week), athletes should take between 1.6g and 1.8g of protein/kg/day with an increase of 400–500 kcal in their daily diet. These needs will depend on the sport, muscular catabolic status, the athlete's lean mass and glycogen stores. Protein needs will increase if muscle and liver glycogen stores are empty. Excess of protein intake (more than 2g/kg/day), with full glycogen stores, does not benefit the athlete and could cause an increase in circulating ketones and urea, thereby producing an early dehydration.

Keywords:
Muscles
Hypertrophy
Proteins
Sports
Exercise
Dietary supplement sport
Nutritional requirements
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