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Inicio Revista Colombiana de Cancerología Efectos psicológicos y sociales que genera la prueba del virus del papiloma hum...
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Vol. 13. Núm. 3.
Páginas 123-184 (Enero 2009)
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Vol. 13. Núm. 3.
Páginas 123-184 (Enero 2009)
DOI: 10.1016/S0123-9015(09)70133-7
Acceso a texto completo
Efectos psicológicos y sociales que genera la prueba del virus del papiloma humano: un estudio exploratorio
An Exploratory Study of the Psychological and Social Effects of the Human Papilloma Virus Test
Visitas
8180
Carolina Wiesner Ceballos1,2,
Autor para correspondencia
cwiesner@cancer.gov.co

Correspondencia Carolina Wiesner Ceballos. Instituto Nacional de Cancerología. Av.1a No. 9-85. Tel.: (571) 3341353. Bogotá, Colombia.
, Jesús Acosta Peñaloza1, Adriana Díaz del Castillo1, Sandra Tovar Murillo1, Hernando Salcedo Fidalgo2
1 Instituto Nacional de Cancerología. Bogotá, Colombia
2 Universidad Externado de Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia
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Información del artículo
Resumen
Objetivo

Presentar los efectos psicológicos y sociales que tuvieron las mujeres, residentes en Bogotá, sometidas a la prueba de ADN del VPH, y la manera como los médicos comunican los riesgos a sus pacientes.

Métodos

Estudio cualitativo fenomenológico. Se realizaron 10 entrevistas semiestructuradas con mujeres que se practicaron la prueba ADN-VPH. Así mismo, se hicieron dos grupos focales: uno con médicos generales y otro con ginecólogos. Finalmente se hizo un análisis de contenido.

Resultados

El impacto psicosocial se ha clasificado en tres categorías: en la esfera emocional, en la vida sexual y de pareja y en el comportamiento. Se diseñó un modelo de los determinantes de la magnitud de los efectos. Este modelo está determinado por la forma y el contenido de la información que suministra el médico y por las características biográficas de la mujer. Los efectos encontrados fueron ansiedad, rabia, vergüenza, culpa, zozobra por la demora de los resultados, miedo al cáncer y temor a tener relaciones sexuales.

Conclusiones

La razón para practicar la prueba no debe ser promovida por el miedo al cáncer, sino por las características de la infección y la convicción sobre los beneficios de la prueba. Se debe promover una reflexión anticipada de la trayectoria de riesgos que se pueden presentar en el futuro utilizando como técnica de comunicación la toma de decisiones de manera concertada.

Palabras clave:
neoplasias del cuello uterino
impacto psicosocial
sondas ADN HPV
Abstract
Objective

To present the psychological and social effects of DNA and HPV exams among women resident in Bogotá; and, the means by which physicians communicate risks to patients. Ten, semi-structured interviews were carried out among women who underwent HPV-DNA examination. Simultaneously, two focus groups were set up: one with general practitioners and the other with gynecologists. Content analysis took place.

Methods

Qualitative study with a phenomenological perspective. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who underwent HPV testing. Two focus groups were carried out with gynecologists and medical practitioners. A content analysis was performed.

Results

Psychosocial impact has been classified into three categories: emotional; sex life and partner relationship; and, behavior. A model was designed to measure the magnitude of the effects of these determinants. This model is based upon the form and content of the information provided by physicians and by women's biographical data. The effects encountered included: anxiety, rage, shame, guilt, panic at delayed results, fear of cancer, and fear of sexual relations.

Conclusions

The reasoning to undergo examination should not be based upon fear, but rather on knowledge of infection symptoms and the conviction that the examination is beneficial. Thinking about risk trajectories should play a relevant part in the communication process based on the concept of concerted decision-making.

Keywords:
Uterine cervical neoplasma
psicosocial aspects
DNA probes, HPV
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Copyright © 2009. Instituto Nacional de Cancerología
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