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Vol. 31. Núm. S4.
Riau International Nursing Conference 2020
Páginas 601-604 (Diciembre 2021)
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Vol. 31. Núm. S4.
Riau International Nursing Conference 2020
Páginas 601-604 (Diciembre 2021)
Original article
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Self efficacy of pregnant women in areas affected by Covid 19
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S. Wahyunia,b, T. Rahayua,b, Nursalamc,
Autor para correspondencia
nursalam@fkp.unair.ac.id

Corresponding author.
a Doctoral Program, Nursing Faculty, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia
b Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Semarang, Indonesia
c Lecturer of the Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University, Indonesia
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Tablas (7)
Table 1. Characteristics of pregnant women.
Table 2. Distribution of frequency of self efficacy.
Table 3. Effect of age on self efficacy.
Table 4. The effect of parity with the self efficacy.
Table 5. The effect of graduation on the self-efficacy of pregnant women.
Table 6. The effect of profession on self-efficacy of pregnant women.
Table 7. The factors that mostly affect the self-efficacy.
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Abstract
Objective

Self efficacy is an important factor that plays a role in dealing with stress during pregnancy, especially during the Covid 19 pandemic era. This study aims to determine the self efficacy of pregnant women during the Covid 19 pandemic era.

Method

This is quantitative research with a cross-sectional design. The number of research subjects was 99 taken from the entire population or total sampling. Data were collected using the General Self-Efficacy Scale and analyzed by logistic regression.

Results

The result showed that the Profession and education of the research subjects have an effect on the self efficacy of pregnant women with a significance value of <0.05.

Conclusions

In Conclusion, profession is the most influential factor on the self efficacy of pregnant women in the Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang, Semarang, Central Java with an OR value of 0.101 and p-value 0.001.

Keywords:
Self efficacy
Pregnant women
Covid 19
Texto completo
Introduction

Pregnancy is a golden period of a woman's maturation process that causes various kinds of changes both physically and psychologically.1 A period that requires adaptation in facing the new role of motherhood.2 The process is not easy for women, especially in situations full of stressors such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Covid 19 emergency that occurred has caused every individual to be at high risk of contracting this dangerous virus. Besides being dangerous for the mother, this virus can also cause health problems for the fetus. Complications that occur in a fetus with a mother infected with COVID-19 are such as abortion (2%), IUGR (10%), preterm birth (39%).3 This condition increases the anxiety of pregnant women. The situation makes everyone feel anxious, including the fear of contracting the virus if they come to a health service center.

The need for health services and pregnancy monitoring is very necessary to ensure the health condition of the mother and fetus, but the government's advice to limit going out of the house, engage in crowds, and visit health care centers if necessary makes pregnant women not free to check every time. In such situations, mothers need to have the skills to believe in their abilities to maintain a healthy pregnancy or self-efficacy.4

Self efficacy will have an impact on a person's ability to motivate himself/herself in taking action to overcome obstacles or problems and stressors experienced.5 This self-efficacy gives confidence that pregnant women can overcome problems during the pregnancy period and prepare themselves for childbirth and its new role. Good self efficacy will reduce individual stress and be able to improve the quality of maternal health during pregnancy. As research conducted by6 which stated that self-efficacy is related to maternal success in the perinatal period.

In the Bandarharjo Village area, where researchers collected data, there were 99 pregnant women during the Covid 19 pandemic era. Pregnant women felt concerned about contracting the virus which could later affect their health condition and fetuses. The need between health services and concerns about infection requires that mothers make the right decisions to prepare for a healthy and quality pregnancy. In this study, researchers revealed the factors that affect the potential or self-efficacy of mothers during their pregnancy in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Method

The research method used is a quantitative approach with a cross-sectional design. Researchers made observations and measurements of variables at once by giving a questionnaire which was used as a measuring tool in the study. The instrument used was the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), a self-efficacy measurement instrument developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem which has been adapted in the Indonesian version and tested by Riangga Novrianto. The researcher has obtained permission to use the instrument. The sample in this study were 99 mothers who were taken by total sampling and the data was analyzed using logistic regression.

Results

The research was conducted in Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang District, Semarang City, Central Java, on 99 pregnant women. The results of the study are as follows:

Table 1 shows that most of the study subjects were at a non-high-risk age, namely the age of 20–35 years, as many as 91 people or (91.9%), the number of multigravida research subjects was 53 people or (53.3%) Secondary education level, namely as many as 86 people or (86.9%) and the number of research subjects who did not Profession was more than 64 people or (64.6).

Table 1.

Characteristics of pregnant women.

Variable  n 
Age
High risk  8.1 
Productive  91  91.9 
Total  99  100.0 
Paritas
Primi gravida  55  55.6 
Multi gravida  44  44.4 
Total  99  100.0 
Graduates
Low  5.1 
Middle  86  86.9 
High  8.1 
Total  99  100.0 
Profession
House wife  64  64.6 
Career woman  34  34.3 
Total  99  100.0 

Table 2 shows that most of the research subjects have poor self-efficacy, namely 80 people or 80.8%.

Table 2.

Distribution of frequency of self efficacy.

Variable  n 
Self efficacy
Not good  80  80.8 
Good  19  19.2 
Total  99  100.0 

Table 3 shows that there is no effect between age on the self-efficacy of pregnant women in the Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang, Semarang, Central Java with a correlation value of 0.169.

Table 3.

Effect of age on self efficacy.

Variable  Self efficacyTotal 
  Not good  Good   
Age
High risk 
Productive  72  19  91 
Total  80  19  99 
r      0.169 

Table 4 shows that there is no effect between parity on the self-efficacy of pregnant women in the Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang, Semarang, Central Java with a correlation value of 0.196.

Table 4.

The effect of parity with the self efficacy.

Variable  Self efficacyTotal 
  Not good  Good   
Paritas
Multi gravida  46  55 
Primi gravida  34  10  44 
Total  80  19  99 
r      0.293 

Table 5 shows that there was an effect between education on the self-efficacy of pregnant women in Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang, Semarang, Central Java with a correlation value of 0.001.

Table 5.

The effect of graduation on the self-efficacy of pregnant women.

Variable  Self efficacyTotal 
  Not good  Good   
Graduate
Low 
Middle  73  13  86 
High 
Total  80  18  99 
r      0.001 

Table 6 shows that there was an effect of a profession on the self-efficacy of pregnant women in Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang, Semarang, Central Java with a correlation value of 0.000.

Table 6.

The effect of profession on self-efficacy of pregnant women.

Variable  Self efficacyTotal 
  Not good  Good   
Profession
House wife  59  64 
Career woman  20  14  34 
Total  79  19  98 
r      0.000 

Table 7 shows that the level of Profession and education of the research subjects had an effect on the Self-efficacy of pregnant women with a significance value of <0.05.

Table 7.

The factors that mostly affect the self-efficacy.

Variabel  B  S.E.  Wald  df  Sig.  Exp(B
Age(1)  −18.368  14,210.361  .000  .999  .000 
graduates      9.362  .009   
graduates(1)  122.852  16,662.801  .000  .999  .000 
graduates(2)  −3.120  1.020  9.362  .002  .044 
Profession(1)  −2.291  .699  10.749  .001  .101 
Constant  2.576  1.053  5.987  .014  13.143 

Someone with professions tends to have Self-efficacy 0.101 more than someone with no Profession. Occupation is the most influential factor on the Self-efficacy of pregnant women in Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang, Semarang, Central Java with an OR value of 0.101 and p-value of 0.001.

Discussion

The results of the research showed that the profession has the most effect on the Self-efficacy of pregnant women in the areas affected by Covid 19. The phenomenon of working women is now commonly found in society. By working, women will socialize and find communities and colleagues to exchange experiences. Sharing experiences is an important element in contributing information, increasing individual knowledge and understanding.7 Profession not only contributes to economic status but can also function as self-actualization and social function. Togetherness with communities who have similar cultures and backgrounds makes the knowledge transformation process faster and easier.8

Working women can adapt more quickly, this is because in their work they are accustomed to dealing with changing situations, completing work, and dealing with various kinds of stressors.9 A worker is accustomed to emerging ideas and opinions, ideas and has high initiative to make a decision.10 This condition is very meaningful to form the mental of a working woman. Positive potentials will be able to develop and effect daily thinking patterns. Work will increase self-efficacy, and with high self-efficacy, women will be able to solve problems and face threats to themselves properly, including threats to health.11 Self-efficacy is fundamental to shaping individual health behavior.12 The real implications of the Covid 19 pandemic period with good Self-efficacy will make pregnant women able to adopt positive behaviors during the Covid 19 period and the new normal, as research conducted by13 who stated that there is a significant relationship between Self-efficacy and health behavior.

The level of education is the factor that affects the self-efficacy of pregnant women in the areas affected by Covid 19. It determines one's mindset and ability to absorb information. Higher education makes individuals have a faster understanding and catching power. Education is the main determinant of the level of knowledge and health behavior in the community.14

Pregnant women who have a higher education level have Self-efficacy or the belief that they are able to deal with stressors during the Covid 19 pandemic. Their beliefs cause mothers to be able to motivate themselves in dealing with pregnancy, childbirth and changing their roles because self-efficacy is a link between information and action.15 The harmony between motivation and action will create positive behavior, especially in an effort to maintain a healthy pregnancy and a prosperous fetus.

Conclusion

Profession and education are factors that affect self-efficacy in pregnant women. Profession is the most influential factor on the self-efficacy of pregnant women in the Bandarharjo Village, North Semarang, Semarang, Central Java with an OR value of 0.002.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgement

This is a research grant from Sultan Agung Islamic University Semarang, which was carried out with the contribution of several parties who are very important. For this reason, the researchers would like to thank to the Chancellor, LPPM, the Dean and all leaders of the Faculty of Nursing, Sultan Agung Islamic University Semarang, Head of Bandarharjo Public Health Center, Head of Kelurahan and Ibu Kader (Cadre Mothers) of Bandarharjo, Semarang. Hopefully, this research is useful for the community, especially mothers during the pregnancy period.

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Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the Riau International Nursing Conference 2020. Full-text and the content of it is under responsibility of authors of the article.

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