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Información de la revista
Vol. 28. Núm. S1.
Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2008
Páginas 51-55 (Enero 2010)
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Vol. 28. Núm. S1.
Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2008
Páginas 51-55 (Enero 2010)
Acceso a texto completo
Infecciones por norovirus
Norovirus infections
Visitas
...
Juan Manuel Ribes Fernándeza, Javier Buesa Gómeza,b,??
Autor para correspondencia
javier.buesa@uv.es

Autor para correspondencia.
a Departamento de Microbiología y Ecología, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, España
b Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valencia, España
Información del artículo
Resumen

Los norovirus infectan a personas de todas las edades, causando con frecuencia brotes epidémicos de gastroenteritis aguda, además de casos esporádicos. La aplicación de métodos moleculares en el diagnóstico de estas infecciones está permitiendo conocer su impacto real. La epidemiología molecular ha facilitado, además, la identificación de los genotipos que más frecuentemente infectan a la población. A pesar de que la gastroenteritis causada por norovirus es generalmente leve y de corta duración, la enfermedad puede llegar a ser grave, especialmente en los ancianos, y puede cronificarse en los pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Se han identificado factores de susceptibilidad a la infección por norovirus constituidos por grupos de antígenos histosanguíneos (ABO, Lewis y secretor) que están implicados en la unión de dichos virus a los enterocitos. Existe un gran polimorfismo genético en la expresión de estos antígenos en los seres humanos, lo cual, junto a la diversidad genética de los norovirus, hace que la interrelación entre estos virus y sus hospedadores humanos sea compleja. El diagnóstico no se suele realizar todavía de forma habitual en muchos laboratorios, aunque aquellos que participan en estudios de vigilancia epidemiológica han detectado la circulación de cepas de norovirus que evolucionan de forma secuencial a lo largo del tiempo, de forma similar a lo que sucede con los virus gripales.

Palabras clave:
Norovirus
Calicivirus humanos
Gastroenteritis
Diarrea
Diagnóstico
Abstract

Noroviruses infect persons of all ages, often causing epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis as well as sporadic cases. The application of novel molecular methods to the diagnosis of norovirus infections is now revealing their real impact. Molecular epidemiology studies have identified the most common viral genotypes responsible for human infections. Norovirus gastroenteritis is usually mild and of short duration, although the disease can also be severe, especially in the elderly, or may become chronic, as occurred in the immunocompromised patients. Several factors have been identified regarding the differential susceptibility to norovirus infection among individuals, consisting of several histo-blood antigens (ABO, Lewis and secretor) that are involved in the binding process of noroviruses to the enterocytes. The expression of these antigens in humans is genetically encoded, and shows a high polymorphism, which combined with the genetic diversity of noroviruses, makes the virus-host relationship rather complex. The diagnosis of norovirus infections is not performed routinely in many laboratories, but those involved in epidemiological surveillance have identified norovirus strains that evolve sequentially over time, similarly to Influenza viruses.

Keywords:
Norovirus
Human calicivirus
Gastroenteritis
Diarrhea
Diagnosis
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