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Vol. 28. Núm. S1.
Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2008
Páginas 62-67 (Enero 2010)
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Vol. 28. Núm. S1.
Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2008
Páginas 62-67 (Enero 2010)
Acceso a texto completo
Evaluación crítica de los nuevos métodos comerciales para la determinación de la carga viral del VIH-1 y del VHC
A review on new commercial methods for HIV-1 and HCV viral load determinations
Visitas
...
Antonio Aguileraa,??
Autor para correspondencia
antonio.aguilera.guirao@sergas.es

Autor para correspondencia.
, Jose María González Albab,c, Lucía Martínez Lamasa, María Luz Moldes Suáreza, Juan Carlos Galánb,c,d,??
Autor para correspondencia
jgalanm.hrc@salud.madrid.org

Autor para correspondencia.
a Sercicio de Microbiología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, España
b Unidad de Virología Molecular, Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España
c Unidad de Resistencia a Antibióticos y Virulencia Bacteriana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, España
d CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, España
Información del artículo
Resumen

Las técnicas de cuantificación viral tienen cada vez más demanda en la microbiología clínica, bien para la evolución de pacientes trasplantados, bien para el seguimiento a largo plazo de enfermedades crónicas como los virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y de la hepatitis C (VHC). Las diferentes compañías farmacéuticas, interesadas en el desarrollo de metodologías eficientes y precisas para el diagnóstico y la correcta cuantificación viral han convergido en los últimos 2 años en la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) en tiempo real aplicada a la cuantificación del VIH y del VHC, para incrementar la sensibilidad, la precisión, la linealidad y la correcta detección de la diversidad genómica de estos dos virus respecto a las técnicas clásicas que se venían aplicando desde finales de la década de 1990. La PCR en tiempo real es la gran herramienta del futuro inmediato, por su sensibilidad y precisión; sin embargo, se debe dar respuesta a nuevas preguntas, como si la constante variabilidad genética en ambos virus puede afectar progresivamente a la correcta cuantificación viral, situación difícilmente detectable al existir una uniformidad metodológica.

Palabras clave:
Virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1
Hepatitis C
Carga viral
Abstract

Viral load techniques are more and more demanded in Clinical Microbiology, regarding with transplanted patients or long time follow-up of chronic diseases as those caused by human inmunodeficiency (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. In the last 2 years, pharmaceutical companies, interested to develop more efficient and accurate methods for the diagnosis and correct viral quantification of HIV and HCV, have converged in the real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. This process is due to the increased sensitiviy, accuracy, linearity and correct detection of genomic viral variants of real time PCR techniques, in comparison with classical molecular methods applied since the nineties of the past century. In spite real time PCR appears as the best tool for the immediate future, new questions regarding the high variability of these viruses should be considered. This could affect the correctness of viral quantifications, while being difficult to detect it because of the methodological uniformity in the clinical laboratories.

Keywords:
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Hepatitis C
Viral load
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