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Información de la revista
Vol. 28. Núm. S1.
Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2008
Páginas 19-28 (Enero 2010)
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Vol. 28. Núm. S1.
Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2008
Páginas 19-28 (Enero 2010)
Acceso a texto completo
Carbapenemasas en especies del género Pseudomonas
Carbapenemases in Pseudomonas spp
Visitas
...
Carlos Juan Nicolau
Autor para correspondencia
carlos.juan@ssib.es

Autor para correspondencia.
, Antonio Oliver
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Son Dureta, Palma de Mallorca; Área de Microbiología, Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB), Institut Universitari d’ Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), Palma de Mallorca, España
Información del artículo
Resumen

Pseudomonas aeruginosa es uno de los patógenos nosocomiales más relevantes, así como una de las principales causas de infección respiratoria crónica en pacientes con enfermedades de base, como la fibrosis quística o la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Su elevado nivel de resistencia intrínseca a los antibióticos, unido a su extraordinaria capacidad para desarrollar resistencias adicionales por mutaciones cromosómicas, hacen de este patógeno uno de los más difíciles de tratar. Aún es más preocupante, si cabe, la creciente detección en este microorganismo de múltiples determinantes de resistencia, frecuentemente localizados en integrones, adquiridos por transferencia horizontal a través de plásmidos o transposones. Entre estos mecanismos destacan las carbapenemasas, por el abanico de antibióticos afectados (pues en conjunto hidrolizan a prácticamente todos los betalactámicos), variedad y capacidad de dispersión. En el presente trabajo se revisa la epidemiología, el impacto y la detección de las carbapenemasas descritas hasta la fecha en el género Pseudomonas, que pertenecen principalmente a la clase B (metalo-β-lactamasas [MBL]: IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, AIM o DIM]), pero también, en menor medida, a las clases A (GES y KPC) y D (OXA). La presencia de estas carbapenemasas transferibles no sólo es importante en P. aeruginosa, sino también en otras especies clínicamente menos relevantes dentro del género, pero que pueden actuar como reservorio y vector de dispersión de estos determinantes de resistencia. La frecuencia creciente de cepas clínicas portadoras de carbapenemasas apremia a la puesta a punto de estrategias que faciliten su detección y reduzcan la expansión de estas cepas multirresistentes y de los mecanismos transferibles implicados.

Palabras clave:
Género Pseudomonas
Carbapenemasas
Metalo-β-lactamasas
Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most relevant nosocomial pathogens, as well as one of the main causes of chronic respiratory infections in patients with underlying diseases such as cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The high intrinsic antibiotic resistance of this pathogen, together with its extraordinary capacity for acquiring additional resistances through chromosomal mutations, determines a major threat for antimicrobial therapy in hospitals worldwide. Even more concerning is the increasing detection of multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants in this microorganism, frequently located on integrons, acquired by horizontal transfer through plasmids and/or transposons. Among these mechanisms, the carbapenemases are particularly relevant, due to the wide spectrum of antibiotics affected. This work reviews the epidemiology, impact, and detection of the carbapenemases described so far in the Pseudomonas spp., that mainly include class B enzymes (metallo-β-lactamases [MBL]: IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, AIM, or DIM), but also, to a lower extent, class A (GES y KPC) and D (OXA) beta-lactamases. The presence of transferable carbapenemases is not only important in P. aeruginosa, but also in other less clinically-relevant species of the genus, since they can act as reservoires and dispersion vectors of these resistance determinants. The growing prevalence of carbapenemase-producing clinical isolates calls for the implementation of multidisciplinary strategies to optimize the detection and minimize the dissemination of these multidrug resistant strains and the involved transferable genetic elements.

Keywords:
Pseudomonas spp
Carbapenemases
Metallo-β-lactamases
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