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Inicio Endocrinología y Nutrición Amilina: del estudio molecular a las acciones fisiológicas
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Vol. 48. Núm. 8.
Páginas 234-245 (Octubre 2001)
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Vol. 48. Núm. 8.
Páginas 234-245 (Octubre 2001)
DOI: 10.1016/S1575-0922(01)74399-9
Acceso a texto completo
Amilina: del estudio molecular a las acciones fisiológicas
Amylin: from molecular biology to physiology
Visitas
...
I. Rojas
Autor para correspondencia
irojas@wanadoo.es

Correspondencia: Dra. I. Rojas. Centro de Diabetología. Fundación Sardà Farriol. Paseo de la Bonanova, 69, 6.a planta. 08017 Barcelona.
, A. Novials
Centro de Diabetología. Fundación Sardà Farriol. Barcelona
Información del artículo

La amilina (en terminologia anglosajona, islet amyloid polypeptide [IAPP]) es un peptido de 37 aminoacidos sintetizado y cosecretado con la insulina por la celula β-pancreatica en respuesta a los mismos estimulos secretagogos. Este peptido constituye el principal componente de los depositos de sustancia amiloide que aparecen en los islotes pancreaticos de la inmensa mayoria de individuos que padecieron diabetes mellitus (DM) tipo 2 clinicamente establecida, constituyendo un hecho caracteristico de esta enfermedad. Actualmente, se considera que la presencia de depositos de sustancia amiloide ejerce un papel critico en la progresiva disfuncion y destruccion de la poblacion celular β que se produce en el curso evolutivo de la DM tipo 2. No obstante, los mecanismos moleculares responsables de la conversion de la amilina en fibras insolubles son, en gran parte, desconocidos. La presencia de mutaciones en el gen de la amilina y la sobreexpresion del peptido han sido involucradas en el desarrollo de la amiloidosis en los islotes pancreaticos y de la DM tipo 2. El gen codificante para la amilina humana esta ubicado en el brazo corto del cromosoma 12, y contiene tres exones y dos intrones. La creacion de modelos de ratones transgenicos proporciono la oportunidad de estudiar in vivo la formacion de los depositos de amiloide en los islotes pancreaticos y las acciones de la amilina humana.

El proposito de este articulo es efectuar una revision de la importancia del amiloide pancreatico en la patogenia y tratamiento de la DM tipo 2, asi como de las acciones fisiologicas de la amilina.

Palabras clave:
Amilina
IAPP
DM tipo 2

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also known as amylin, is a 37-amino acid peptide wich is synthesized and cosecreted with insulin from pancreatic islet-β cells in response to the same secretagogue stimuli. This peptide is the primary consituent of amyloid deposits, which are found in pancreatic islet of the vast majority of individuals with well-established type 2 diabetes, and constitutes a characteristic feature of the disease process. There is increasing evidence suggesting that the presence of islet storage has an important role in progressive β-cell dysfunction and β-cell loss in type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the conversion of IAPP to insoluble fibrils still remain largely unknown. Mutations of the IAPP gene and overexpression of the peptide have been involved in islet amyloidogenesis and type 2 diabetes. The gene encoding human IAPP is located on the short arm of chromosome 12, and contains three exons and two introns. The creation of transgenic mouse models allowed the opportunity to study in vivo the formation of amyloid islet and the actions of human IAPP. This article reviews the importance of amyloid islet in the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes and the physiologic actions of IAPP.

Key words:
Amylin
IAPP
Type 2 DM
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