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Vol. 54. Núm. 4.
Páginas 270-281 (Enero 2002)
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Vol. 54. Núm. 4.
Páginas 270-281 (Enero 2002)
DOI: 10.1016/S0003-3170(02)74753-6
Acceso a texto completo
Caracterización y biocompatibilidad de las prótesis vasculares de poliuretano estabilizado con polidimetilsiloxano
Characterization and biocompatibility of vascular prostheses made of polyurethane stabilized with polydimethylsiloxane
Caracterização e biocompatibilidade de próteses vasculares em poliuretano estabilizado com polidimetilsiloxano
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N. García-Honduvillaa,
Autor para correspondencia
natalio.garcia@uah.es

correspondence: Departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas y Cirugía. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Alcalá. Ctra. N-II, km 33,600. E-28871 Alcalá de Henares (Madrid). Fax: +34 918 854 885.
, M.J. Gimenoa, R. López-Sáncheza, C. Corralesa, G. Soldanib, V. Samouillanc, J. Bujána, J.M. Bellóna
a Departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas y Cirugía. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Alcalá. Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, España.
b Laboratory of Biomaterials and Graft Technologies. Hospital G. Pasquinuci. Massa, Italia.
c Laboratoire de Physique des Polymères. INSERM. Toulouse, Francia.
Información del artículo
Summary
Introduction

Biomaterial research and development efforts have yielded new vascular prosthesis showing improved behaviour as small calibre grafts.

Objective

The present study was designed to evaluate the biological behaviour of vascular prostheses made of polyurethane.

Material and methods

Prostheses: polyurethane-polydimethylsiloxane (PU-PDMS). Characterization: fragments of PU-PDMS were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical charge of the prosthetic material's inner surface was determined by spectral analysis. Biocompatibility: fragments (1cm2) of PU-PDMS were grafted to the dorsal muscle of New Zealand rabbits (n= 18) and maintained for 3 or 8 months when they were subjected to morphological, immunohistochemical (anti-actin) and foreign body reaction (RAM11) analysis. Seeding: fragments (1cm2) were seeded with endothelial cells from human umbilical vein. Follow-up times were 24, 48, 72h and 7 days.

Results

The biomaterial is of fibrous composition and has numerous pores. The inner biomaterial surface shows areas of negative charge. At three months, the prosthesis was observed to be embedded in a highly vascularised neoformed tissue that was rich in white blood and foreign body reaction cells. Eight months after grafting, the biomaterial was fully infiltrated by host tissue and enveloped by highly vascularised collagen. At 24h of seeding, endothelialisation of the prosthetic surface was noted, with the exposure of large pores that became lined with cells at subsequent stages.

Conclusions

The characteristics shown by the PU-PDMS prosthesis: structure, no rejection and good integration with host tissue in the mid- and long-term are suitable for its use as a vascular substitute.

Key words:
Biocompatibility
Endothelial cells
Polyurethane
Seeding
Tissue engineering
Vascular prostheses
Resumen
Introducción

El de sarrollo de nuevos biomateriales ha desembocado en la aparición de nuevas prótesis vasculares que mejoren el comportamiento de injertos protésicos de pequeño calibre.

Objetivo

El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del comportamiento biológico de prótesis vasculares de poliuretano.

Material y métodos

Prótesis: poliuretano-polidimetilsiloxano (PU-PDMS). Caracterización: fragmentos de PU-PDMS se procesaron para su estudio en microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido. Se determinó la carga eléctrica de la superficie interna mediante análisis espectral. Biocompatibilidad: fragmentos (1cm2) de PU-PDMS se implantaron en el músculo dorsal de conejos Nueva Zelanda (n= 18) durante 3 y 8 meses. Realizamos estudios morfológicos, inmunohistoquímicos (antiactina) y de reacción de cuerpo extraño (RAM11). Siembra:fragmentos de 1cm2 se sembraron con células endoteliales de vena umbilical humana. Tiempos de estudio: 24, 48, 72 horas y 7 días.

Resultados

La composición es fibrilar, con presencia de numerosos poros. Existencia de cargas negativas en la superficie interna del biomaterial. A los tres meses, la prótesis se embebe en tejido neoformado muy vascularizado y rico en células blancas y células de reacción a cuerpo extraño. A los 8 meses se puede observar la total integración del biomaterial, que aparece rodeado de colágeno y muy vascularizado. A las 24 horas de la siembra observamos una superficie endotelizada, que deja al descubierto grandes poros que se tapizan en los estadios posteriores.

Conclusiones

Las prótesis PU-PDMS presentan características adecuadas para utilizarse como sustitutos vasculares, gracias a su estructura, ausencia de rechazo y buena integración a cortoy medio plazo.

Palabras clave:
Palabras clave
Biocompatibilidad
Células endoteliales
Ingeniería tisular
Poliuretano
Prótesis vasculares
Siembra celular
Resumo

Introducao. O desenvolvimento de novos biomateriais conduziu ao aparecimento de novas próteses vasculares que melhoram o comportamento dos enxertos protésicos de pequeno calibre. Objectivo. O objectivo do presente trabalho é o estudo do comporta-mento biológico de próteses vasculares de poliuretano. Material e métodos. Prótese: po-liuretano-polidimetilsiloxano (PU-PDMS). Caracterizacao: foram processadosfragmen-tos de PU-PDMS para o seu estudo em mi-croscopia óptica e electrónica de varredura. Determinou-se a carga eléctrica da superficie interna por análise espectral. Biocompatibili-dade: implantaram-se fragmentos (1 cm2) de PU-PDMS no músculo dorsal de coelhos da Nova Zelandia (n=18) durante 3 a 8 meses. Realizámos estudos morfológicos, imunohis-toquímicos (antiactina) e de reaccao de corpo estranho (RAM11). Disseminacao: foram disseminados fragmentos de 1 cm2 com células endoteliais da veia umbilical humana. Tempos de estudo: 24, 48, 72 horas e 7 dias. Resultados. A composicao é fibrilar, com pre-senca de numerosos poros. Existencia de cargas negativas na superficie interna do biomaterial. Aos tres meses, a prótese embebe-se no tecido neoformado, muito vascularizado e rico em células brancas e células de reaccao a corpo estranho. Aos 8 meses pode-se observara totalintegracao do biomaterial, que aparece rodeado de colagénio e muito vasculari-zado. As 24 horas da disseminacao observamos uma superficie endotelizada, que deixa em des-coberto grandes poros que se tapam nas fases posteriores. Conclusoes. As próteses PU-PDMS apresentam características adequadas para serem utilizadas como substitutos vasculares, gracas á sua estrutura, ausencia de re-jeicao e boa integracao a curto e médioprazo.

Palavras chave:
Biocompatibilidade
Células endoteliais
Disseminacao celular
Engenha-ria tecidual
Poliuretano
Próteses vasculares
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