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Vol. 22. Issue 1.
Pages 39-46 (January - April 2021)
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Vol. 22. Issue 1.
Pages 39-46 (January - April 2021)
Review article
Simultaneous formulation of chemical and genetic adjuvants could result in finding an efficient H5 influenza DNA vaccine
La formulación simultánea de adyuvantes químicos y genéticos podría conducir al hallazgo de una vacuna de ADN eficaz frente a la gripe H5
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M. Ghaemia,
Corresponding author
m.ghaemi@shirazu.ac.ir

Corresponding author.
, S-E. Tabtabaeizadehb
a Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
b Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, Iran
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Tables (2)
Table 1. The losses, including animals killed or disposed of, due to the H5 influenza outbreaks in domestic birds by region from January 2013 to August 2018. There is no report for total poultry losses due to H5 influenza outbreaks in domestic birds after August 2018.
Table 2. Different adjuvants used for H5 influenza DNA vaccine.
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Abstract
Objectives

The H5 influenza virus constantly evolves by mutation and re-assortment and results in the emergence of new subtypes. The DNA vaccine may be an ideal candidate vaccine for influenza virus because it can be developed rapidly in response to the new subtypes of influenza viral genes. As, finding an efficient H5 influenza DNA vaccine is still challenging, we aimed to review the articles which have reported the effects of an adjuvant on the H5 influenza DNA vaccines.

Results

Different types of adjuvants have been co-administered with the H5 influenza DNA vaccines. These adjuvants are generally divided into two types: ‘genetic adjuvants’ and ‘chemical adjuvants’. Among the genetic adjuvants, the Esat-6 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found to induce the highest humoral response. Both Lipofectin® and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) were potent chemical adjuvants for DNA vaccine in chickens via IM and oral administration routes, respectively.

Conclusion

It could be concluded that the formulation of an H5 DNA vaccine with both Lipofectin® as the most potent chemical adjuvant and Esat-6 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the best genetic adjuvant is proposed for chicken immunization against H5 influenza virus. Also, the cationic derivatives of the polyprenols (PTAI) can be formulated in DNA vaccine instead of Lipofectin® to make the adjuvant more affordable. Additionally, it seems that AgNP could be a potent candidate adjuvant for the oral H5 influenza DNA vaccine. Finally, more research is needed to find better adjuvants to include DNA vaccines as an applied vaccine type.

Keywords:
Genetic adjuvant
Chemical adjuvant
DNA vaccine
H5 subtype
Influenza virus
Resumen
Objetivos

El virus de la gripe H5 está en constante evolución por mutación y recombinación, lo cual origina la aparición de nuevos subtipos. La vacuna de ADN podría ser una candidata ideal como vacuna frente al virus de la gripe, ya que puede desarrollarse rápidamente como respuesta a los nuevos subtipos de los genes virales de gripe. Como encontrar una vacuna de ADN eficaz frente a la gripe H5 es aún difícil, nuestro objetivo fue revisar los artículos que han reportado los efectos de un adyuvante en las vacunas de ADN frente a la gripe H5.

Resultados

Se han co-administrado diferentes tipos de adyuvantes junto con las vacunas de ADN frente a la gripe H5. Dichos adyuvantes se dividen por lo general en 2 tipos: «adyuvantes genéticos» y «adyuvantes químicos». Entre los adyuvantes genéticos, se encontró que el gen Esat-6 de Mycobacterium tuberculosis inducía la mayor respuesta humoral. Tanto Lipofectin® como las nanopartículas de plata (AgNP) fueron adyuvantes químicos potentes para la vacuna de ADN en pollos, a través de las vías IM y de administración oral, respectivamente.

Conclusión

Podría concluirse que se propone la formulación de una vacuna de ADN frente a la gripe H5 con Lipofectin®, como adyuvante químico más potente, y el gen Esat-6 de Mycobacterium tuberculosis como el mejor adyuvante genético para inmunización de pollos frente al virus de la gripe H5. También podrían formularse en la vacuna de ADN los derivados catiónicos de los poliprenoles (PTAI) en lugar de Lipofectin® para hacer que el adyuvante fuera más asequible. Además, parece que AgNP podría ser un potente candidato a adyuvante para la vacuna oral de ADN frente a la gripe H5. Por último, se necesita más investigación para encontrar mejores adyuvantes a incluir en vacunas de ADN como tipo de vacuna aplicada.

Palabras clave:
Adyuvante genético
Adyuvante químico
Vacuna de ADN
Subtipo H5
Virus de la gripe

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