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Inicio Vacunas (English Edition) Delving into revolutionary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approaches: Molecular and virologi...
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Vol. 25. Issue 1.
Pages 109-127 (January - March 2024)
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Vol. 25. Issue 1.
Pages 109-127 (January - March 2024)
Review article
Delving into revolutionary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approaches: Molecular and virological examinations; principles of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine platform
Adentrándose en enfoques revolucionarios de vacunas SARS-CoV-2: Exámenes moleculares y virológicos; principios de la plataforma de vacunas SARS-CoV-2
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Fahime Edalata, Fatemeh Hosseini Tabatabaiea, Afagh Moattaria, Arash Letafatib, Jamal Sarvaria,
Corresponding author
sarvarij@sums.ac.ir

Corresponding authors.
, Seyed Younes Hosseinia,
Corresponding author
hoseiniy@sums.ac.ir

Corresponding authors.
a Department of Bacteriology & Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
b Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Studied vaccines (excluding inactivated vaccines) divided by platform/type and development stage.
Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages of different vaccine platforms.
Table 3. Inactivated vaccines divided by platform/type and development stage.
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Abstract

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It emerged in 2019 and quickly became a global pandemic, resulting in numerous deaths worldwide. Despite the devastating impact of SARS-CoV-2 on human life, it also spurred the development of advanced vaccine platforms. Within a remarkably short time frame, 11 vaccines have been approved for human use, marking a significant historical achievement. These include mRNA, whole inactivated, recombinant protein, and adenoviral vector platforms. Notably, these new-generation vaccine platforms represent a departure from previously utilized methods and form the backbone of SARS-CoV-2 preventive strategies. In order to enhance the efficacy of vaccines, it is crucial to have a comprehensive understanding of their underlying virological and immunological characteristics. The recent emergence of variant strains, particularly the Omicron variant, has raised doubts regarding the effectiveness of current vaccines and emphasized the need for a universal platform for future vaccinations.

This review focuses on discussing various vaccine platforms based on their molecular design, their ability to stimulate the immune system, safety concerns, potential efficacy against viral variants, and prospects for the future.

Keywords:
SARS-CoV-2
Vaccine
Viral vectors
Nucleic acid-based vaccine
Subunit vaccine
mRNA vaccine
Palabras clave:
SARS-CoV-2
Vacuna
Vectores virales
Vacuna de ácido nucleico
Vacuna de subunidad
Vacuna de mRNA
Resumen

La enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), que creó una pandemia en 2019 y causó muchas muertes en todo el mundo. A pesar del impacto catastrófico de SARS-CoV-2 en la vida humana durante los últimos 2 años, el desarrollo de plataformas de vacunas de nueva generación fue un recuerdo de esta aparición viral. La construcción de 11 plataformas aprobadas para uso humano en un período tan corto es un logro histórico. Las plataformas de ARNm, inactivadas por completo, proteínas recombinantes y vectores adenovirales son plataformas de vacunas aprobadas. Sin embargo, las estrategias preventivas de SARS-CoV-2 se basan principalmente en las plataformas de vacunas de nueva generación que rara vez se habían utilizado antes. Comprender las bases de las vacunas, incluidas las características virológicas e inmunológicas, es esencial para mejorar el modo de acción. Además, la aparición de variantes preocupantes y recientemente la variante ómicron, ha planteado muchas preocupaciones sobre el potencial preventivo de las vacunas actuales y la necesidad de una plataforma universal para el futuro. En esta revisión, se han discutido los principios de las diferentes plataformas de vacunas basadas en el diseño molecular, la inducción del sistema inmunológico, los problemas de seguridad de las vacunas, el potencial contra las variantes virales y las perspectivas futuras.

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