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DOI: 10.1016/j.remle.2020.01.002
Forensic DNA phenotyping: A promising tool to aid forensic investigation. Current situation
El fenotipado de ADN como potencial herramienta investigativa en el campo de la genética forense. Estado actual
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Aurora Canales Serrano
Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
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Abstract

Forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) based on massive parallel sequencing (MPS) is an emerging technique within forensic genetics that enables the prediction of an individual's externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from DNA. Because of its achievements, FDP has become one of the most useful additional tools for aiding police investigations to narrow down the investigative pool in different types of forensic cases. Eye, hair and skin colour can now be predicted reliably and with practically useful accuracy. However, FDP has not yet been routinely implemented in the forensic science field due to, principally, the lack of complete genetic knowledge of pigmentation and facial traits and the lower predictability of intermediate phenotypes. Furthermore, in some countries its application has given rise to a number of ethical, social and legal issues, the latter being the most restrictive barrier to the implementation of FDP.

Keywords:
Forensic DNA phenotyping
Pigmentation
Facial traits
Prediction
Limitations
Massive parallel sequencing
Resumen

El fenotipado de ADN forense mediante massive parallel sequencing es una técnica emergente dentro del campo de la genética forense, que permite predecir características visibles del individuo a partir del ADN. Esta herramienta se ha convertido en una de las más potentes para ayudar a estrechar el cerco investigativo en diferentes casos forenses. Hasta ahora el color de ojos, de piel y de pelo son los rasgos fenotípicos que se pueden predecir con la suficiente precisión y fiabilidad como para usarlos en la práctica forense. Sin embargo, esta técnica no está implementada todavía de manera rutinaria en este campo debido, principalmente, a la falta de conocimiento genético completo sobre la pigmentación y los rasgos faciales humanos; y la menor predictibilidad de los fenotipos intermedios. Además, su aplicación en algunos países ha suscitado una serie de cuestiones éticas y sociales, así como legales, siendo estos últimos los más determinantes en la implementación de esta herramienta.

Palabras clave:
Fenotipado de ADN Forense
Pigmentación
Rasgos faciales
Predicción
Limitaciones
Massive Parallel Sequencing

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