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Review
Proteomics as a new tool in forensic sciences
La proteómica como una nueva herramienta en las ciencias forenses
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Rubén Dario Díaz Martína,b, Zaira Camacho-Martíneza,b, Javier Rolando Ambrosio Hernándezb, Lorena Valencia-Caballeroa,
Corresponding author
loreval@unam.mx

Corresponding author.
a Departamento de Anfiteatro, Facultad Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico
b Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico
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Abstract

The use of new technologies, such as proteomics, permits the efficient and reproducible analysis, identification and characterisation of peptides and proteins from different biological and non-biological matrices. This can help in the development of new biomarkers in the forensic sciences. Protein markers are highly resistant to the passage of time and adverse environmental conditions, and could provide a broad overview of the physiological status of the subjects. The use of protein markers substantially reduces the contamination of samples as compared to DNA, while providing quantitative and highly reliable data that are backed by databases for their interpretation. This work presents a review of the advances and limitations of proteomics to establish the origin of the evidence found, the cause of death, the presence of pathogens and conditional disease, as well as the biological age at death, the post-mortem interval, or the biogeographic origin of subjects.

Keywords:
Proteomics
Proteins
Biomarkers
Forensic sciences
Resumen

El uso de nuevas tecnologías como la proteómica permite analizar, identificar y caracterizar péptidos y proteínas provenientes de diversas matrices biológicas y no biológicas, de forma eficiente y reproducible. Esto puede facilitar el desarrollo de nuevos biomarcadores en el área de las ciencias forenses. Los marcadores proteicos son altamente resistentes al paso del tiempo, condiciones ambientales adversas y proporcionan un amplio panorama del estatus fisiológico de los sujetos. El uso de marcadores proteicos reduce sustancialmente la contaminación de las muestras en comparación con el ADN, al tiempo que aporta datos cuantitativos y confiables, que se encuentran respaldados por bases de datos para su interpretación. En este trabajo se hace una revisión de los avances y limitaciones de la proteómica para establecer el origen de los indicios hallados, la causa de muerte, la presencia de patógenos y enfermedades condicionantes o la edad biológica al momento del deceso, el intervalo post-mortem o el origen biogeográfico de un individuo.

Palabras clave:
Proteómica
Proteínas
Biomarcadores
Ciencias forenses

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