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Brief report
Personality disorders in the Spanish jurisprudence
Trastornos de la personalidad en la jurisprudencia española
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Florencia Lorenzo Garcíaa,
Corresponding author
florencialorenzo29@hotmail.com

Corresponding author.
, José R. Agustinaa, Esperanza L. Gómez-Durána,b, Carles Martin-Fumadóa,c
a Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
b Unidad de Psiquiatría, Grupo Hestia, Barcelona, Spain
c Institut de Medicina Legal de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
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Table 1. Levels of declared criminal responsibility according to PD (with or without comorbidity).
Abstract

Personality disorders may affect intelligence and free will and therefore imply a criminal imputability alteration. However, Spanish jurisprudence does not follow a general rule when assessing personality disorders’ influence on criminal liability. By reviewing 77 Spanish Supreme Court decisions, we present in this paper a descriptive and retrospective study on how jurisprudence understands and assesses personality disorders. Paranoid, borderline, unspecified and antisocial personality disorders are in practice the more often applied constructs, but they do not imply full exculpation. In comorbidity cases courts usually recognise partial exculpatory defenses or attenuate punishment in reasoning by similarity and analogy to mental disorder. In personality disorder cases sentences, disorders of that kind have a relative influence on measuring penalties – courts impose, if so, a minimum sentence at its lower half or, at most, at only one grade under the minimum grade. Imposing security measures for diminished capacity cases related to personality disorders is exceptional.

Keywords:
Forensic psychiatry
Criminal responsibility
Personality disorder
Jurisprudence
Resumen

Los trastornos de la personalidad (TP) pueden suponer una afectación de las capacidades cognoscitivas y/o volitivas y, en consecuencia, implicar una modificación de la responsabilidad criminal. Sin embargo, la jurisprudencia, al valorar la incidencia de los TP sobre la imputabilidad, no responde a una regla general. Se presenta un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo del tratamiento jurisprudencial que reciben los TP mediante la revisión de 77 sentencias condenatorias del Tribunal Supremo entre febrero de 1998 y noviembre del 2010. Los TP que más se tienen en cuenta en la valoración de la imputabilidad son el paranoide, límite, no especificado y antisocial, pero sin considerarse eximente de la responsabilidad criminal. En los supuestos de comorbilidad generalmente se aprecia una eximente incompleta o atenuante analógica de anomalía o alteración psíquica. En la condena por delitos cometidos por sujetos afectados por TP, el reconocimiento de dicho trastorno tiene una incidencia relativa en la pena, imponiéndose esta en su mitad inferior o, a lo sumo, rebajándose a la pena inferior en un solo grado. La adopción de medidas de seguridad para los semiimputables en caso de TP es excepcional.

Palabras clave:
Psiquiatría forense
Responsabilidad criminal
Trastornos de la personalidad
Jurisprudencia

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