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Vol. 30. Issue 3.
Pages 174-188 (September - December 2018)
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Vol. 30. Issue 3.
Pages 174-188 (September - December 2018)
DOI: 10.1016/j.stmat.2018.06.001
Flammability characteristics of chemical treated woven hemp fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites
M.I. Misnona,b, M.M. Islama,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, J.A. Epaarachchia, H. Chenc, K. Godad, M.T.I. Khane
a Centre for Future Materials and School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350, Australia
b Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
c Zhejiang Textile & Fashion College, China
d Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-8611, Japan
e Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502, Japan
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Figures (9)
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Tables (12)
Table 1. Standard methods used to determine fabric properties.
Table 2. List of manufactured composite samples.
Table 3. Physical properties of all woven hemp fabrics.
Table 4. Summary of tensile properties for all woven hemp fabrics in this work.
Table 5. Constituent content results of all treated woven hemp composites.
Table 6. Results of tensile properties of all fabricated woven hemp composites.
Table 7. Flexural properties results of all fabricated composites.
Table 8. Results of burning test of all fabricated composite.
Table 9. Data of thermal analysis extracted from TG and DTG curves.
Table 10. LOI results of all fabricated composites.
Table 11. Mechanical properties of fire retardant treated woven hemp fabric composites, wood and engineered wood products.
Table 12. Allowable design properties of several woods used in construction [31].
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In the present work, the treatments using sodium hydroxide, flame retardant chemical and combination of both sodium hydroxide and flame retardant changed the physical properties thus reduced the mechanical properties of woven hemp fabric and fabricated composites. However, the treatments increased the fire retardant properties of fabricated composites as indicated by the burning tests, thermogravimetry analyses and limiting oxygen index tests. An assessment based on woods and engineered wood products have shown that the fabricated composites are suitable to be used for building infrastructure materials as an alternative to wood products.

Woven hemp fabric
Fire retardant
Mechanical properties
Limiting oxygen index
Burning test
Thermal stability


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