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Available online 6 June 2020
Striatal volumes as potential biomarkers in Eating Disorders: A pilot study
Volúmenes estriatales como biomarcadores potenciales en los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria: estudio piloto
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Rosa M. Molina-Ruiza,
Corresponding author
rmolinar@salud.madrid.org

Corresponding author.
, Jeffrey C.L. Looib, Mark Walterfangc, Tomás García-Saizd, Fiona A. Wilkesb, Lena L. Liub, Dennis Velakoulisc, Jose Luis Carrasco Pereraa, Marina Diaz-Marsaa
a Complutense University Medical School, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
b Research Centre for Neurosciences of Ageing, Academic Unit of Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine, Australian National University Medical School, Canberra. Hospital, Canberra, Australia
c Neuropsychiatry Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital; Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Melbourne and Northwestern Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia
d UNED, Artificial Intelligence, Madrid, Spain
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Figures (2)
Tables (4)
Table 1. Demographic variables. Age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Education, Bite and Barratt scales according to diagnosis.
Table 2. Estimated marginal means of caudate and putamen volume by subgroups.
Table 3. Pairwise comparisons of caudate and putamen volume between groups. Estimated Marginal Means by subgroups.
Table 4. Trauma history by subgroups, subtype of trauma and correlation with caudate and putamen volumes.
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Abstract
Introduction

Differences in bulimic and impulsive behaviours in Eating Disorders (ED) have been associated with cortico-striatal circuit dysfunction at a neurobiological level. We sought to investigate neo-striatal volume as a biomarker in ED subgroups as well as the possible relationship with trauma history.

Material and methods

We studied 24 female patients: Anorexia Nervosa AN (n=8), Bulimia Nervosa BN (n=9), comorbid ED with borderline personality disorder (EDc; n=7), and a group of Healthy Controls (n=19). Binge eating behaviours and impulsivity scales were used to characterize our sample as well as Trauma Questionnaires and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric manual measurements of caudate and putamen nuclei (striatum).

Results

Our preliminary results showed a significantly larger left putaminal volume in AN compared to the other three groups [C (p=0.008), BN (p<.001) and EDc (p=.001)] and a smaller right putaminal volume in EDc compared to controls (p=.045) and AN (p=.039).

Some negative correlations were found between bilateral putaminal volumes and self-reported general and early traumatization scores.

Conclusion

This pilot study suggested that striatal volumes might differentiate AN from BN and EDc at a neurobiological level with implications for treatment strategies. Larger scale studies should be carried out that allow replication of these data.

Keywords:
Neuroimaging
Eating disorders
Impulsivity
Magnetic resonance imaging
Trauma
Resumen
Introducción

Las diferencias en comportamientos bulímicos e impulsivos de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) se han relacionado, desde el punto de vista neurobiológico con una disfunción córtico-estriatal. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el volumen neo-estriatal como un biomarcador de los subgrupos de TCA, así como la posible relación con antecedentes traumáticos.

Material y métodos

Se estudiaron 24 pacientes con diagnósticos de anorexia nerviosa (AN, n=8); bulimia nerviosa (BN, n=9); TCA comórbido con trastorno límite de la personalidad (TCAc; n=7), y un grupo de controles sanos (n=19). Se utilizaron escalas de impulsividad y comportamiento bulímico para caracterizar a la muestra, así como escalas de trauma y medidas volumétricas de trazado manual de los núcleos caudado y del putamen (estriado) de imágenes de resonancia magnética (RM).

Resultados

Nuestros resultados preliminares mostraron un volumen del putamen izquierdo significativamente mayor en las pacientes con AN comparado con el resto de los grupos (C [p<0,008], BN [p<0,001] y TCAc [p<0,001]) y un volumen del putamen derecho menor en el grupo TCAc comparado con los controles. Se encontraron algunas correlaciones negativas entre el volumen del putamen bilateral y algunas puntuaciones auto-referidas de escalas de trauma.

Conclusiones

Este estudio piloto sugiere que los volúmenes estriatales podrían diferenciar las pacientes AN, BN y TCAc a un nivel neurobiológico, lo que puede tener implicaciones beneficiosas de cara a las estrategias de tratamiento. Sin embargo, serán necesarios estudios a mayor escala que permitan replicar estos datos.

Palabras clave:
Neuroimagen
Trastornos de conducta alimentaria
Impulsividad
Resonancia magnética
Trauma

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