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Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (English Edition)
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DOI: 10.1016/j.redare.2020.07.001
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Available online 28 July 2020
Patient characteristics, clinical course and factors associated to ICU mortality in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Spain: A prospective, cohort, multicentre study
Características, evolución clínica y factores asociados a la mortalidad en UCI de los pacientes críticos infectados por SARS-CoV-2 en España: estudio prospectivo, de cohorte y multi-céntrico
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C. Ferrandoa,b,
Corresponding author
cafeoranestesia@gmail.com

Corresponding author.
, R. Mellado-Artigasa, A. Geac, E. Arrutid, C. Aldecoae, A. Bordelle, R. Adaliaf, L. Zatteraf, F. Ramascog, P. Monederoh, E. Masedai, A. Martínezj, G. Tamayoj, J. Mercadala, G. Muñoza, A. Jacasa, G. Ángelesa, P. Castrok, M. Hernández-Tejerol, J. Fernandezl, M. Gómez-Rojom, Á. Candelam, J. Ripollésn, A. Nieton, E. Bassaso, C. Deiroso,p, A. Margaritq, F.J. Redondor, A. Martíns, N. Garcíat, P. Casasu, C. Morcillov, M.L. Hernández-Sanzj, for the COVID- Spanish ICU Network 1
a Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital Clínic, Institut D'investigació August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain
b CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
c Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Medical School, University of Navarra, Spain
d Ubikare Technology, Vizcaya, Spain
e Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital Universitario Río Hortega, Valladolid, Spain
f Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
g Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital La Princesa, Madrid, Spain
h Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
i Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain
j Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital de Cruces, Barakaldo, Vizcaya, Spain
k Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Clínic, Institut D'investigació August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
l Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
m Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital del Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
n Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital del Universitario Infanta Leonor, Madrid, Spain
o Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital San Joan Despí Moises Broggi, Barcelona, Spain
p Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
q Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital Nostra Senyora de Meritxell SAAS, Andorra, Andorra
r Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, Spain
s Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital de Urdúliz, Vizcaya, Spain
t Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital de Terrasa, Barcelona, Spain
u Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital Universitario a Coruña, a Coruña, Spain
v Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Hospital Sanitas CIMA, Barcelona, Spain
Received 02 July 2020. Accepted 09 July 2020
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Table 1. Demographic, comorbidities, pharmacological treatment, symptoms, scores, vital signs and laboratory markers on admission.
Table 2. Ventilation, adjunctive therapies and pharmacological treatment during ICU stay.
Table 3. ICU complications and outcomes.
Table 4. Risk factors associated with in-ICU mortality — multivariable logistic regression.
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Abstract
Background

The clinical course of COVID-19 critically ill patients, during their admission in the intensive care unit (UCI), including medical and infectious complications and support therapies, as well as their association with in-ICU mortality has not been fully reported.

Objective

This study aimed to describe clinical characteristics and clinical course of ICU COVID-19 patients, and to determine risk factors for ICU mortality of COVID-19 patients.

Methods

Prospective, multicentre, cohort study that enrolled critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted into 30 ICUs from Spain and Andorra. Consecutive patients from March 12th to May 26th, 2020 were enrolled if they had died or were discharged from ICU during the study period. Demographics, symptoms, vital signs, laboratory markers, supportive therapies, pharmacological treatments, medical and infectious complications were reported and compared between deceased and discharged patients.

Results

A total of 663 patients were included. Overall ICU mortality was 31% (203 patients). At ICU admission non-survivors were more hypoxemic [SpO2 with non-rebreather mask, 90 (IQR 83–93) vs 91 (IQR 87–94); p < 0.001] and with higher sequential organ failure assessment score [SOFA, 7 (IQR 5–9) vs 4 (IQR 3–7); p < 0.001]. Complications were more frequent in non-survivors: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95% vs 89%; p = 0.009), acute kidney injury (AKI) (58% vs 24%; p < 10−16), shock (42% vs 14%; p < 10−13), and arrhythmias (24% vs 11%; p < 10−4). Respiratory super-infection, bloodstream infection and septic shock were higher in non-survivors (33% vs 25%; p = 0.03, 33% vs 23%; p = 0.01 and 15% vs 3%, p = 10−7), respectively. The multivariable regression model showed that age was associated with mortality, with every year increasing risk-of-death by 1% (95%CI: 1–10, p = 0.014). Each 5-point increase in APACHE II independently predicted mortality [OR: 1.508 (1.081, 2.104), p = 0.015]. Patients with AKI [OR: 2.468 (1.628, 3.741), p < 10−4)], cardiac arrest [OR: 11.099 (3.389, 36.353), p = 0.0001], and septic shock [OR: 3.224 (1.486, 6.994), p = 0.002] had an increased risk-of-death.

Conclusions

Older COVID-19 patients with higher APACHE II scores on admission, those who developed AKI grades II or III and/or septic shock during ICU stay had an increased risk-of-death. ICU mortality was 31%.

Resumen
Antecedentes

No se ha reportado plenamente la evolución clínica de los pacientes críticos de COVID-19 durante su ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI), incluyendo las complicaciones médicas e infecciosas y terapias de soporte, así como su asociación con la mortalidad en ICU.

Objetivo

El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características clínicas y la evolución de los pacientes ingresados en UCI por COVID-19, y determinar los factores de riesgo de la mortalidad en UCI de dichos pacientes.

Métodos

Estudio prospectivo, multi-céntrico y de cohorte, que incluyó a los pacientes críticos de COVID-19 ingresados en 30 UCIs de España y Andorra. Se incluyó a los pacientes consecutivos de 12 de Marzo a 26 de Mayo de 2020 si habían fallecido o habían recibido el alta de la UCI durante el periodo de estudio. Se reportaron los datos demográficos, síntomas, signos vitales, marcadores de laboratorio, terapias de soporte, terapias farmacológicas, y complicaciones médicas e infecciosas, realizándose una comparación entre los pacientes fallecidos y los pacientes dados de alta.

Resultados

Se incluyó a un total de 663 pacientes. La mortalidad general en UCI fue del 31% (203 pacientes). Al ingreso en UCI los no supervivientes eran más hipoxémicos [SpO2 sin mascarilla de no reinhalación, de 90 (RIC 83–93) vs 91 (RIC 87–94); p < 0,001] y con mayor puntuación en la escala SOFA - Evaluación de daño orgánico secuencial - [SOFA, 7 (RIC 5–9) vs 4 (RIC 3–7); p < 0,001]. Las complicaciones fueron más frecuentes en los no supervivientes: síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA) (95% vs 89%; p = 0,009), insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) (58% vs 24%; p < 10−16), shock (42% vs 14%; p < 10−13), y arritmias (24% vs 11%; p < 10−4). Las súper-infecciones respiratorias, infecciones del torrente sanguíneo y los shock sépticos fueron más frecuentes en los no supervivientes (33% vs 25%; p = 0,03, 33% vs 23%; p = 0,01 y 15% vs 3%, p = 10−7), respectivamente. El modelo de regresión multivariable reflejó que la edad estaba asociada a la mortalidad, y que cada año incrementaba el riesgo de muerte en un 1% (95%IC: 1–10, p = 0,014). Cada incremento de 5 puntos en la escala APACHE II predijo de manera independiente la mortalidad [OR: 1,508 (1,081, 2,104), p = 0,015]. Los pacientes con IRA [OR: 2,468 (1,628, 3,741), p < 10−4)], paro cardiaco [OR: 11,099 (3,389, 36,353), p = 0,0001], y shock séptico [OR: 3,224 (1,486, 6,994), p = 0,002] tuvieron un riesgo de muerte incrementado.

Conclusiones

Los pacientes mayores de COVID-19 con puntuaciones APACHE II más altas al ingreso, que desarrollaron IRA en grados II o III y/o shock séptico durante la estancia en UCI tuvieron un riesgo de muerte incrementado. La mortalidad en UCI fue del 31%.

List of abbreviations
ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

AKI

acute kidney injury

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CI

confidence interval

CRP

C-reactive protein

ECMO

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

STROBE

Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology

GPT

glutamic-pyruvic transaminase

HNFT

high flow nasal therapy

ICU

intensive care unit

IQR

interquartile range

IL-6

interleukin-6

KDIGO

kidney disease: improving global outcomes

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

MV

mechanical ventilation

NIV

non-invasive ventilation

NMB

neuromuscular blockers

OR

odds ratio

PaCO2

carbon dioxide arterial pressure

PaO2/FiO2

arterial oxygen pressure to inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio

PCT

procalcitonin

SARS-CoV-2

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2

SD

standard deviation

SOFA

sequential organ failure assessment

SpO2

peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation

WHO

World Health Organization

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Acknowledgments

COVID-19 Spanish ICU Network

Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care: Marina Vendrell, Gerard Sánchez-Etayo, Amalia Alcón, Isabel Belda, Mercé Agustí, Albert Carramiñana, Isabel Gracia, Miriam Panzeri, Irene León, Jaume Balust, Ricard Navarro, María José Arguís, Maria José Carretero, Cristina Ibáñez, Juan Perdomo, Antonio López, Manuel López, Tomás Cuñat, Marta Ubré, Antonio Ojeda, Andrea Calvo, Eva Rivas, Paola Hurtado, Roger Pujol, Nuria Martín, Javier Tercero, Pepe Sanahuja, Marta Magaldi, Miquel Coca, Elena del Rio, Julia Martínez-Ocon, Paula Masgoret, Angel Caballero, Raquel Risco, Lidia Gómez, Nicolas de Riva, Ana Ruiz, Beatriz, Tena, Sebastián Jaramillo, Jose María Balibrea, Francisco Borja de Lacy, Ana Otero, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Raquel Bravo, Anna Carreras, Daniel Martín-Barreda, Alfonso Jesús Alias, Mariano Balaguer, Jorge Aliaga, Alex Almuedo, Joan Ramón Alonso, Rut Andrea, Gerard Sergi Angelès, Marilyn Arias, Fátima Aziz, Joan Ramon Badía, Enric Barbeta, Toni Torres, Guillem Batiste, Pau Benet, Xavi Borrat, María Borrell, Ernest Bragulat, Inmaculada Carmona, Manuel Castellà, Pedro Castro, Joan Ceravalls, Oscar Comino, Claudia Cucciniello, Clàudia De Deray, Oriol De Diego, Paula De la Matta, Marta Farrero, Javier Fernández, Sara Fernández, Anna Fernández, Miquel Ferrer, Ana Fervienza, María Tallo Forga, Daniel Forné, Clàudia Galán, Andrea Gomez, Eduard Guasch, Maria Hernández- Tejero, Adriana Jacas, Beltrán Jiménez, Pere Leyes, Teresa López, José Antonio Martínez, Graciela Martínez-Pallí, Jordi Mercadal, Guido Muñoz, Jose Muñoz, Ricard Navarro, Josep Maria Nicolás, José Tomás Ortiz, Anna Peiró, Manuel Pérez, Esteban Poch, Margarida Pujol, Eduard Quintana, Bartomeu Ramis, Enric Reverter, Irene Rovira, Pablo Ruiz, Elena Sandoval, Stefan Schneider, Oriol Sibila, Carla Solé, Alex Soriano, Dolors Soy, M. Suárez, Adrián Téllez, Néstor David Toapanta, Antoni Torres, Xavier Urra. Hospital Universitario Río Hortega: César Aldecoa, Alicia Bordell, Silvia Martín, Judith Andres. Hospital Universitario Cruces: Alberto Martínez Ruiz, Gonzalo Tamayo Medel, Iñaki Bilbao Villasante, Fernando Iturri Clavero, Covadonga Peralta Álvarez, Julia T. Herrera, Andrea García Trancho, Iñaki Sainz Mandiola, Carmen Ruano Suarez, Angela Ruiz Bocos, Eneritz Urrutia Izagirre, Pablo Ortiz de Urbina Fernández, Naiara Apodaka, Leire Prieto Molano, Julia T. Herrera, Eunate Ganuza, Iratxe Vallinas, Karmele de Orte, Celia González Paniagua, Gemma Ortiz, Rosa Gutierrez, Mireia Pérez, Marta López, Estíbaliz Bárcena, Erik Urutxurtu, Maria Jesús Maroño, Blanca Escontrela. Hospital del Mar: Ramón Adalia, Luigi Zattera, Irina Adalid Hernandez, Leire Larrañaga Altuna, Aina Serrallonga Castells, Adriana Vilchez Garcia, María Núñez, Lorena Román. Hospital General Universitario De Ciudad Real: Francisco Javier Redondo Calvo, Ruben Villazala González, Victor Baladron González. Complejo Asistencial Universitario León: Sergio Marcos Contreras, Alejandro Garcia Rodríguez, Saleta Rey Vázquez, Cristina Garcia Pérez, Eva Higuera Miguelez, Irene Pérez Blanco, David García Rivera. Hospital Urduliz: Ane Martín de la Fuente, Marta Pardo, Vanessa Rodriguez, Unai Bengoetxea. Hospital Universitario de la Princesa: Fernando Ramasco, Sheila Olga Santidrián Bernal, Alvar Santa Cruz Hernando. Hospital Povisa: Beatriz Domínguez, Ana Vázquez Lima. Hospital Ramón y Cajal: Ángel Candela, Ismael A Acevedo Bambaren, Maria Isabel Albala Blanco, Paloma Alonso Montoiro, Fernando Álvarez Utrera, Juan Avellanosa Esteruelas, Amal Azzam López, Alberto José Balvis Balvis, María Beltrán Martín, Jacobo Benatar Haserfaty, Alberto Berruezo Camacho, Laura Betolaza Weimer, Maria del Mar Carbonell Soto, Cristina Carrasco Seral, Cristina Cerro Zaballos, Elizabeth Claros Llamas, Pilar Coleta Orduna, Ingrid P. Cortes Forero, Pascual Agustín Crespo Aliseda, María Angélica de Pablo Pajares, Yolanda Díez Remesal, Trinidad Dorado Díaz, Noemí Echevarría Blasco, María Elena Elías Martín, Javier Felices Triviño, Natalia Fernández López, Cristina Fernández Martín, Natalia Ferreiro Pozuelo, Luis Gajate Martín, Clara Gallego Santos, Diego Gil Mayo, María Gómez Rojo, Claudia González Cibrián, Elena Herrera López, Borja Hinojal Olmedillo, Berta Iglesias Gallego, Sassan Khonsari, María Nuria Mane Ruiz, María Manzanero Arroyo, Ana María Mariscal Ortega, Sara Martín Burcio, María del Carmen Martín González, Ascensión Martín Grande, Jose Juan Martín López, Cecilia Martín Rabes, Marcos Martínez Borja, Nilda Martínez Castro, Adolfo Martínez Pérez, Snejana Matcan, Cristina Medrano Viñas, Lisset Miguel Herrera, Adrián Mira Betancur, María Montiel Carbajo, Javier Moya Moradas, Lorena Muñoz Pérez, Mónica Nuñez Murias, Eva Ordiales González, Óscar Ordoñez Recio, Miguel Ángel Palomero Rodriguez, Diego Parise Roux, Lucia Pereira Torres, David Pestaña Lagunas, Juana María Pinto Corraliza, Marian Prieto Rodrigo, Inmaculada Rodriguez Diaz-Regaño, David Rodriguez Esteban, Víctor Rojas Pernia, Álvaro Ruigómez Saiz, Bárbara Saavedra Villarino, Noemí Samaranch Palero, Gloria Santos Pérez, Jaume Serna Pérez, Ana Belén Serrano Romero, Jesús Tercero López, Carlos Tiscar García, Marta de la Torre Concostrina, Eva María Ureta Mesa, Eva Velasco Olarte, Judith Villahoz Martínez, Raúl Villalaba Palacios, Gema Villanueva García, Cristina Vogel de Medeiros. Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa: Sheila Gholamian Ovejero, Marta Vicente Orgaz, Patricia Lloreda Herradon, Cristina Crespo Gómez. Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín: Tatiana Sarmiento-Trujillo. Hospital de Terrassa: Noemí García Medina, María Martínez García, Carles Espinós Ramírez, Nabil Mouhaffel Rivero, Jose Antonio Bernia Gil. Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja San José y Santa Adela: Sonsoles Martín. Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau: María Victoria Moral, Josefina Galán, Pilar Paniagua, Sergio Pérez, Albert Bainac, Ana Arias, Elsa Ramil, Jorge Escudero. Hospital Clínica Universidad de Navarra: Pablo Monedero, Carmen Cara, Andrea Lara, E. Mendez Martínez, Jorge Mendoza, Íñigo Rubio Baines. Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública: Alfredo Gea, Alejandro Montero. Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset Aleixandre: Rocío Armero. Hospital Universitario de Cáceres: Fernando García Montoto. Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia: José Antonio Carbonell, Berta Monleón López, Sara Martínez-Castro, Gerardo Aguilar. Hospital Universitario a Coruña: María Gestal, Pablo Casas, Angel Outeiro Rosato, Andrea Naveiro Pan, María Alonso Portela, Adrián García Romar, Eva Mosquera Rodríguez, Diego Ruanova Seijo, Pablo Rama Maceiras. Complexo Universitario de Ferrol: Francisco Castro-Ceoane, Esther Moreno López. Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa: Sergio Gil, Julia Guillén Antón, Patricia García-Consuegra Tirado, Aurora Callau Calvo, Laura Forés Lisbona, María Carbonell Romero, Belén Albericio Gil, Laura Pradal Jarne, María Soria Lozano, Diego Loscos López, Andrea Patiño Abarca. Universal Doctors: Jordi Serrano. UBIKARE: Javier Pérez-Asenjo, Ángel Díez-Domínguez, Ion Zubizarreta, Jon Ramos, Iosu Fernández. Hospital Universitario La Paz: Emilio Maseda. Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañon: Ignacio Garutti. Hospital San Joan Despí Moises Broggi: Eva Bassas Parga, Carmen Deiros Garcia, Elisenda Pujol Rosa, Ana Tejedor Navarro, Roser Font Gabernet, Maria José Bernat, Meritxell Serra Valls, Cristina Cobaleda Garcia-Bernalt, Jesus Fernanz Anton, Adriana Aponte Sierra, Lucia Gil Gomez, Olaia Guenaga Vaqueiro, Susana Hernandez Marin, Laura Pardo Pinzon, Sira Garcia Aranda, Carlos Briones Orejuela, Edgar Cortes Sanchez, Alejandro Romero Fernandez, Esther Fernández Sanjosé, Patricia Iglesias Garsabal, Guillermo Isidro Lopez, Ana Vicol, Sara Espejo Malagon, Maria Sanabra Loewe, Laura Grau Torradeflo, Lourdes Blanco Alcaide, Gloria Buenaventura Sanclemente, Pere Serra Pujol, Gustavo Cuadros Mendoza, Miroslawa Konarska, Fedra Bachs Almenara, Agnieszka Golska, Aleix Carmona Blesa, Beatriz Cancio Rodriguez, Raquel Peredo Hernandez Arantxa Mas Serra. Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor: Javier Ripolles Melchor, Ana Nieto Moreno, Káteri Chao Novo, Sandra Gadín López, Elena Nieto Moreno, Bérénice Gutiérrez Tonal, Elena Lucena de Pablo, Barbara Algar Yañez, Beatriz Vázquez Rivero, Beatriz Nozal Mateo, Marina de Retes, Norma Aracil Escoda, Cristina Gallardo Mayo, Rosa Sanz González, Alicia Ruiz Escobar, Maria Laura Pelegrina López, Marina Valenzuela Peña, David Stolle Dueñas, Ane Abad Motos, Alfredo Abad-Gurumeta, Ana Tirado Errazquin, Elena Sáez Ruiz, Nerea Gómez Perez, Francisco de Borja Bau González. Hospital sanitas CIMA: Cesar Morcillo Serra. Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fé: Rosario Vicente, Raquel Ferrandis, Silvia Polo Martín, Azucena Pajares Moncho, Ignacio Moreno Puigdollers, Juan Pérez Artacho Cortés, Ana Moret Calvo, Ana Pi Peña, María Catalán Fernández. Complexo hospitalario Universitario de Pontevedra: Marina Varela. Hospital Arnau de Vilanova: María Isabel Forés Chiva. Hospital General de Alicante: A. Javier Agulló. Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofía: Antonio Pérez Ferrer. Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante: Maria Galiana. Hospital Nuestra Señora de Meritxell SAAS: Antoni Margarit, Válerie Mourre del Rio, Eva Heras Muxella, Anna Vidal.

Appendix A
Supplementary data

The following are Supplementary data to this article:

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Members of the COVID-19 Spanish ICU Network are listed in the Supplementary file at the end of this article.

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