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Original Article
Depressive symptoms and psychosocial risk factors in high complexity obstetric patients admitted to a critical care obstetric unit in Cali, Colombia
Detección de síntomas depresivos en mujeres gestantes de alta complejidad obstétrica y factores correlacionados
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Ana María Guerra, Diana María Dávalos Pérez, Alejandro Castillo Martínez
Corresponding author
acastillo@fcvl.org

Corresponding author.
Fundación Clínica Valle del Lili, Universidad ICESI, Cali, Colombia
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Tables (5)
Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics.
Table 2. Clinical variables.
Table 3. Age according to health insurance.
Table 4. Depressive symptoms according to the Edinburgh scale.
Table 5. Bivariate analysis.
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Abstract

Depression is the main cause of years lossed due to disability in the world, and it affects 50% more women 50% than men. Perinatal depression has been linked with more anxiety, a chronic course, and disability than depression in other life stages. In spite of its high prevalence and serious health effects on both mother and foetus, it is frequently under-diagnosed. This study was performed on all high risk obstetric patients admitted to a critical care obstetric unit in Cali, Colombia, from January to June, 2014. Depressive symptoms and psychosocial risk factors were screened by means of a survey and the Edinburgh Prenatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A total of 695 women were included, of whom 30.2% had depressive symptoms on the EPDS, and 3.6% reported having self-injury thoughts in the last 7 days. Our findings are consistent with previous reports on a history of child abuse and family depression as risk factors. It was also suggested that lower socio-economic status is associated with more vulnerability. Early screening is needed to ensure timely detection and treatment.

Keywords:
Depression
Perinatal
Screening
Resumen

La depresión es la principal causa de años perdidos por discapacidad en el mundo, y en mujeres la carga de la enfermedad es un 50% mayor que en varones. La depresión perinatal tiene mayor asociación con ansiedad, cronicidad y discapacidad que en otras etapas de la vida y es poco reconocida a pesar de su alta prevalencia y sus graves efectos en la salud de la madre y el feto. Se realizó un estudio en pacientes ingresadas y valoradas en una unidad de alto riesgo obstétrico en el proceso de implementación del programa durante los meses de enero a junio de 2014; se utilizaron la Edinburgh Prenatal Depression Scale (EPDS) y un cuestionario previamente desarrollado para identificar la presencia de síntomas depresivos y factores de riesgo psicosocial. Se evaluó sistemáticamente a más de 600 mujeres, y se encontró que el 30,2% de las mujeres evaluadas tenían síntomas depresivos según la EPDS y el 3,6% había tenido ideas de autolesión en los últimos 7 días. Los factores relacionados evaluados indican una condición de vulnerabilidad de las mujeres con menor nivel socioeconómico. Los datos encontrados reiteran la importancia de detectar factores que tradicionalmente el personal de salud no identifica ni interviene a lo largo de la vida y particularmente durante la gestación.

Palabras clave:
Depresión
Perinatal
Detección

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