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Review Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.rcpeng.2017.03.007
Scientific evidence on preventive interventions in childhood obesity
Evidencia científica sobre intervenciones preventivas en obesidad infantil
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Raquel Alba-Martín
USM Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, Spain
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Table 1. Most relevant results of the review.
Abstract
Introduction

The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community.

Objective

Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far.

Methods

Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions.

Results

Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generalisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible.

Conclusions

Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies.

Keywords:
Psychosocial obesity
Childhood
Interventions
Evidence
Resumen
Introducción

El incremento en la prevalencia de obesidad y/o sobrepeso en todas las edades, la morbimortalidad asociada a dichas situaciones y la mayor percepción del problema en la sociedad han generado distintas hipótesis de respuesta científica y de la comunidad internacional.

Objetivo

Investigar las intervenciones preventivas realizadas en obesidad infantil hasta el momento.

Métodos

Revisión integradora de la literatura durante el periodo de estudio: abril de 2013 a noviembre dfe 2014. Se utilizó la base de datos internacional MEDLINE, a través de PubMed, The Cochrane Library (número 4 de 2002) y la base de datos nacional Isooc (CSIC) e internet. Se incluyeron en la revisión los trabajos de salud desarrollados entre 1990 y 2014, que se centraban o incluían intervenciones de educación, prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la obesidad (en idiomas inglés y español).

Resultados

Se seleccionaron los 34 registros más relevantes (peer review) de 726 artículos identificados. Se constata que hay poca evidencia generalisable sobre intervención que pueda llevarse a cabo en atención primaria o en los servicios de referencia disponibles, aunque numerosos estudios indican que las mejoras en el sobrepeso son posibles.

Conclusiones

A pesar de la abundante literatura y de que numerosas instituciones sitúan la obesidad infantil como una de las prioridades de salud pública, nos enfrentamos a la paradoja de que el coste-efectividad de las intervenciones preventivas es escaso. Constatar estas lagunas en el conocimiento debe llevar a completarlas con estudios rigurosos y bien diseñados.

Palabras clave:
Obesidad psicosocial
Infancia
Intervenciones
Evidencia

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