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Vol. 48. Issue 4.
Pages 208-214 (October - December 2019)
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Vol. 48. Issue 4.
Pages 208-214 (October - December 2019)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.rcpeng.2018.01.003
Factors associated with homophobia in medical students from eleven Peruvian universities
Factores asociados a la homofobia en estudiantes de Medicina de once universidades peruanas
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Wendy Nieto-Gutierreza, Jorge K. Komori-Parionab, Alice G. Sánchezc, Dercy Centeno-Leguíad, Liz Arestegui-Sáncheza, De La Torre-Rojas Katherine M.e, Roberto Niño-Garciaf, Liz Mendoza-Aucarurig, Christian R. Mejiah, Dante M. Quiñones-Laverianoi,
Corresponding author
dante.quinonesl@urp.pe

Corresponding author.
a Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima, Peru
b Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional José Faustino Sánchez Carrión, Huacho, Peru
c Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Ricardo Palma, Lima, Peru
d Sociedad Científica Médico Estudiantil San Cristóbal, Escuela Profesional de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru
e Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica, Ica, Peru
f Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Nacional de Piura, Piura, Peru
g Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina del Centro, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, Huancayo, Peru
h Escuela de Medicina Humana, Universidad Continental, Huancayo, Peru
i Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Ricardo Palma, Lima, Peru
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Table 1. Socio-educational characteristics of medical students from eleven Peruvian universities.
Table 2. Bivariate analysis of homophobia according to social, educational and cultural factors among Peruvian medical students.
Table 3. Multivariate analysis of homophobia according to social, educational and cultural factors among Peruvian medical students.
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Abstract
Background

The consequences of homophobia can affect the integrity, mental and physical health of homosexual individuals in society. There are few studies in Peru that have evaluated homophobia in the medical student population.

Objective

To establish the social, educational and cultural factors associated with homophobia among Peruvian medical students.

Methods

A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 12 medicine schools in Peru. Homophobia was defined according to a validated test, which was associated with other variables. Statistical associations were identified.

Results

The lowest percentages of homophobic students (15–20%) were found in the four universities in Lima, while universities in the interior of the country had the highest percentages (22–62%). Performing a multivariate analysis, we found that the frequency of homophobia was lower for the following variables: the female gender (PRa=0.74; 95% CI, 0.61–0.92; p=0.005), studying at a university in Lima (PRa=0.57; 95% CI, 0.43–0.75; p < 0.001), professing the Catholic religion (PRa=0.53; 95% CI, 0.37–0.76; p < 0.001), knowing a homosexual (PRa=0.73; 95% CI, 0.60–0.90; p=0.003) and having treated a homosexual patient (PRa=0.76; 95% CI, 0.59–0.98; p=0.036). In contrast, the frequency of homophobia increased in male chauvinists (PRa=1.37; 95% CI, 1.09–1.72; p=0.007), adjusted by four variables.

Conclusions

Homophobia was less common in women, in those who study in the capital, those who profess Catholicism and those who know/have treated a homosexual. In contrast, male chauvinists were more homophobic.

Keywords:
Homophobia
Undergraduate medical education
Homosexuality
Resumen
Introducción

Las consecuencias de la homofobia pueden afectar a la integridad y la salud mental y física de los individuos homosexuales en la sociedad. En Perú hay escasos estudios que hayan evaluado la homofobia en la población médico-estudiantil.

Objetivo

Determinar los factores sociales, educativos y culturales asociados con la homofobia entre estudiantes de Medicina peruanos.

Métodos

Se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal analítico en 12 sedes de Medicina humana peruanas. Se definió homofobia según un test validado, que se asoció con otras variables. Se obtuvieron estadísticos de asociación.

Resultados

Las 4 universidades de Lima obtuvieron menores porcentajes de alumnos homofóbicos (15–20%) que las universidades del interior del país (22–62%). Al realizar el análisis multivariable, disminuyeron la frecuencia de homofobia: ser mujer (RPa=0,74; IC95%, 0,61-0,92; p=0,005), estudiar en una universidad de Lima (RPa=0,57; IC95%, 0,43-0,75; p < 0,001), profesar la religión católica (RPa=0,53; IC95%, 0,37-0,76; p < 0,001), conocer a un homosexual (RPa=0,73; IC95%, 0,60-0,90; p=0,003) y haber atendido a un paciente homosexual (RPa=0,76; IC95%, 0,59-0,98; p=0,036); en cambio, ser machista aumentó la frecuencia de homofobia (RPa=1,37; IC95%, 1,09-1,72; p=0,007), ajustado por 4 variables.

Conclusiones

La homofobia fue menos frecuente entre las mujeres, los que estudiaban en la capital, los que profesan el catolicismo y los que conocen/han atendido a un homosexual; por el contrario, los machistas fueron más homofóbicos.

Palabras clave:
Homofobia
Educación de pregrado en Medicina
Homosexualidad

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