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Inicio European Journal of Psychiatry Current status of demoralization and its relationship with medical coping style,...
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Vol. 34. Issue 4.
Pages 211-218 (October - December 2020)
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Vol. 34. Issue 4.
Pages 211-218 (October - December 2020)
Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpsy.2020.06.007
Current status of demoralization and its relationship with medical coping style, self-efficacy and perceived social support in Chinese breast cancer patients
J. Lia,b, X. Liua,c, L. Xua,b, Z. Jina,b,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
a Clinical Nursing Teaching and Research Section, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China
b Department of General Surgery, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China
c Department of Oncology, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan410011, China
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Tables (4)
Table 1. DS-MV scores.
Table 2. Comparison of the DS-Total among groups with different demographic characteristics and clinical features.
Table 3. Correlations of the total DS-MV and its sub-scales’with the C-MCMQ sub-scales, the C-SUPPH, and the C-PSSS.
Table 4. Results of multiple linear regression on the variables associated with demoralization.
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Background and objectives

To explore the current status of demoralization syndrome and its relationship with medical coping style, self efficacy and perceived social support in Chinese breast cancer patients.


A total of 375 Chinese patients with breast cancer participated in this study. Data were primarily collected using questionnaires, including a general information questionnaire, the Demoralization Scale-Mandarin Version (DS-MV), the Chinese version of the Medical Coping Style Questionnaire, the Strategies Used by People to Promote Health scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. The mean value+1 standard deviation was used to determine the cutoff of DS. Associations between demoralization and other variables were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multivariate linear regression.


The mean score of the DS-Total was 26.95 (SD = 12.83, range = 0–60), with the prevalence of low demoralization 16.8%, medium demoralization 72.8% and high demoralization 10.4%. Demoralization was significantly associated with medical insurance (provincial, city medical insurance, and new rural cooperative medical insurance), having at least one child, type of operation (breast-conserving surgery or breast plastic surgery), income, medical coping style (i.e., resignation), self-efficacy and perceived social support (adjusted R2 = 0.539, p < 0.001).


Demoralization syndrome is a common mental disorder among Chinese patients with breast cancer. Financial status, having children, type of operation, medical coping style, self-efficacy, and perceived social support are significantly related to demoralization. It is important and necessary to have early and regular monitoring of demoralization using validated instruments specifically designed to measure it.

Medical coping style
Self efficacy
Perceived social support
Breast cancer


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