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Available online 28 April 2024
Beliefs and conditioning factors of adherence to COVID-19 vaccination among university teachers in Nigeria
Creencias y factores condicionantes de la adherencia a la vacunación COVID-19 entre el profesorado universitario en Nigeria
Deborah Tolulope Esana,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, Moses Eterigho Emetereb, Blessed Obem Oyamac
a Faculty of Nursing Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University Iwo, Osun, Nigeria
b Department of Physics, Bowen University Iwo, Nigeria
c Department of Nursing Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
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Dear Editor,

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, which has caused unplanned hindrances to healthcare systems worldwide.1,2 Developing a low-risk and potent COVID-19 vaccine became the only solution to the pandemic. As of 15 November 2021, WHO1 has approved different types of vaccines as safe for vaccination. However, wrong information and conspiracy theories about the COVID-19 vaccine have affected the readiness to take the vaccine of some population groups. A study reported a score of 65.04 ± 5.00% COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among staff and students at a university in eastern Nigeria.3 However, little is known about the situation in Southwest Nigeria, reason why this study was proposed.

This letter's purpose is to discuss the misconceptions, readiness to accept vaccine and factors influencing/affecting faculty members' COVID-19 vaccination uptake at a private university in Nigeria.

The study was conducted at Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, a foremost private university in Nigeria. The University has over 500 academic staff. Faculty members who work in the various colleges/departments were randomly selected, with 123 faculty members selected. The participating teachers were from the faculties Social and Management Sciences, Sciences, Health Sciences and Engineering. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to these faculty members in their offices during working hours including important aspects such as socio-demographic characteristics of respondents (7 questions), beliefs regarding the disease and the vaccine (14 questions), readiness to accept vaccine (4 questions) and factors influencing uptake of COVID-19 vaccine (5 questions).

Data was collected between 20th January and 25th February 2022 and the data obtained was analyzed.

Results revealed the beliefs/assumptions of respondents on COVID-19 and its vaccine (Fig. 1a). It showed that majority (82.9%) of the participants believed they were not at risk of the disease with only a few considering themselves susceptible to COVID-19. Few (8.9%) believed the vaccines imported to Nigeria are expired vaccines. Minority (3.3%) believed that young people do not need vaccination, and 119 (96.7%) do not believe such. Only a little above one-tenth (16.3%) would recommend the COVID-19 vaccine to friends and family, while majority 103 (83.7%) would not recommend it to their friends or family. Fig. 1b shows the readiness to accept the vaccine among respondents. Around average (50.4%) were ready to take the vaccine if available and around one-third (32.5%) would allow their spouse to take the COVID-19 vaccine and above average (56.1%) would allow their children to be vaccinated.

Figure 1.

(a) Beliefs regarding the disease and the vaccine (b) Readiness to accept vaccine (c) Factors influencing uptake of COVID-19 vaccine.


Some of the factors influencing uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine highlighted by respondents included “travel time to the immunization site” (69.9%), “busy personal schedule” (87%), “concern of vaccine safety” (74.8%), and “religious belief” (46.3%).

Furthermore, 41% believed the vaccine is unsafe, 45.5% also believed that many people have died from vaccine-related complications. These findings agree with the findings of Reiter et al.2 and Mahmud et al.,4 where participants agreed with the claim that COVID-19 vaccines being given worldwide are not potent and are unsafe. Although, the overall level of readiness to accept COVID-19 was moderate, this contrasts with a study by Huynh et al.,5 in Vietnam where 76.1% of healthcare professionals were ready to be vaccinated and were ready to accept the vaccine. The difference may be attributed to the characteristics of the study population because this study took place among lecturers, while Huynh et al.,5 conducted their study among health professionals who are expected to be better enlightened regarding the importance and benefits of the vaccine and thus be more eager to take it.

The readiness of a population to accept a vaccine is highly dependent on populations’ knowledge of the disease and the vaccine. People tend to be interested when they understand and know the purpose of what is being given to them.

Participants emphasized a few assumptions/myths they have about the COVID-19 vaccine, as well as the moderate readiness for vaccination uptake, identifying several conditioning factors that affect COVID-19 uptake. We recommend that communications via various channels be designed to demystify myths and promote the acceptance of the vaccine among the public.

Due to the fact that the questionnaire used has not been validated, it is important to note that the data obtained is just an approach to the topic in order to identify the perspective of academic staff and its potential influence on students.

Although this study was conducted in only one university, results may raise awareness regarding the importance of beliefs and its potential capacity to interfere with effective COVID-19 vaccination programs. For this reason, further research would be required in order to identify potential conditioning factors to design effective strategies to enhance COVID-19 vaccination adherence between university teachers and subsequently, its potential effect of students believes and vaccination patterns in Nigeria and in any others country.

O.O. Afolalu, O.E. Atekoja, Z.O. Oyewumi, S.O. Adeyeye, K.I. Jolayemi, O. Akingbade.
Perceived impact of coronavirus pandemic on uptake of healthcare services in South West Nigeria.
Pan Afr Med J., 40 (2021), pp. 26
P.L. Reiter, M.L. Pennell, M.L. Katz.
Acceptability of a COVID-19 vaccine among adults in the United States: How many people would get vaccinated?.
Vaccine., 38 (2020), pp. 6500-6507
I.C. Uzochukwu, G.U. Eleje, C.H. Nwankwo, G.O. Chukwuma, C.A. Uzuke, C.E. Uzochukwu, et al.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among staff and students in a Nigerian tertiary educational institution.
Ther Adv Infect Dis, 8 (2021),
S. Mahmud, M. Mohsin, I.A. Khan, A.U. Mian, M.A. Zaman.
Knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and perceived risk about COVID-19 vaccine and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Bangladesh.
Más uno, 16 (2021),
G. Huynh, T.T. Tran, H.T. Nguyen, L.A. Pham.
COVID-19 vaccination intention among healthcare workers in Vietnam.
Asian Pac J Trop Med., 14 (2021), pp. 159

Please cite this article as: Esan DT, Emetere ME and Oyama BO, Creencias y factores condicionantes de la adherencia a la vacunación COVID-19 entre el profesorado universitario en Nigeria, Enferm Clín. 2024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2024.02.001

Copyright © 2024. Elsevier España, S.L.U.. All rights reserved
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es en pt

¿Es usted profesional sanitario apto para prescribir o dispensar medicamentos?

Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs?

Você é um profissional de saúde habilitado a prescrever ou dispensar medicamentos