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Vol. 31. Issue 1.
Pages 51-56 (January - February 2021)
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Vol. 31. Issue 1.
Pages 51-56 (January - February 2021)
Brief Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcle.2020.03.006
Impact of an educational intervention on the quality of the Mediterranean diet, physical activity and weight status in adolescents: Randomised clinical trial
Impacto de una intervención educacional sobre la calidad de la dieta mediterránea, la actividad física y el estado ponderal en adolescentes: ensayo clínico aleatorizado
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Pedro Prieto-Zambrano
Corresponding author
, Lorena Pache-Iglesias, Ana Teresa Domínguez-Martín, Isabel Panea-Pizarro, Adela Gómez-Luque, Fidel López-Espuela
Departamento de Enfermería, Facultad de Enfermería y Terapia Ocupacional, Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain
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Table 1. Comparison of KIDMED questionnaire items and relation between the quality of the Mediterranean diet and physical activity between groups, before and after the interventions.
Table 2. Relationship between Mediterranean diet and physical activity, in both groups.
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Abstract
Objective

To analyze the impact of an educational intervention on the quality of the Mediterranean diet, physical activity and weight status in adolescents.

Method

Randomized clinical trial (RCT), controlled with a multimodal educational intervention (control group [n=36] and experimental group [n=46]). Data collection at the beginning and end of the study, in teenagers from Cáceres, Spain. In both groups anthropometric measurements and sociodemographic data were determined. The quality of the Mediterranean diet was assessed through the KIDMED test, the degree of physical activity through the PAQ-A questionnaire and weight status with the growth charts of the Faustino Orbegozo Eizaguirre Foundation.

Results

We obtained a significant increase in the experimental group in the PAQ-A questionnaire that assesses physical activity (p=.029). No significant differences were observed between groups in the weight status (p=.916). When comparing the quality of the Mediterranean diet (high vs moderate or low quality) with physical activity (p control=.730; experimental p=.495) and with weight status (p control=.838; experimental p=.372), No significant differences are observed.

Conclusions

The educational intervention did not improve the quality of the Mediterranean diet or physical activity, although most of our sample had normal weight and acceptable physical activity. We must continue to improve the healthy eating pattern of our adolescents, to ensure an adequate state of health in the future.

Keywords:
Mediterranean diet
Quality
Exercise
Adolescents
Obesity
Resumen
Objetivos

Analizar el impacto de una intervención educacional sobre la calidad de la dieta mediterránea (DM), la actividad física y el estado ponderal en adolescentes.

Método

Ensayo clínico aleatorizado y controlado con intervención educacional multimodal (grupo control [n=36] y grupo experimental [n=46]). Recogida de datos, al inicio y al final del estudio, en población adolescente de la ciudad de Cáceres. En ambos grupos se determinaron medidas antropométricas y datos sociodemográficos. Se evaluó la calidad de la DM mediante el test KIDMED, el grado de actividad física a través del cuestionario PAQ-A y el estado ponderal con las tablas de crecimiento de la Fundación Faustino Orbegozo Eizaguirre.

Resultados

Obtuvimos un aumento significativo en el grupo experimental en el cuestionario PAQ-A que valora la actividad física (p=0,029). No se observaron diferencias significativas entre grupos en el estado ponderal (p=0,916). Al comparar la calidad de la DM (calidad alta vs moderada o baja) con la actividad física (pcontrol=0,730; pexperimental=0,495) y con el estado ponderal (pcontrol=0,838; pexperimental=0,372), no se observaron diferencias significativas.

Conclusiones

La intervención educacional no mejoró la calidad de la DM ni la actividad física, aunque la mayoría de nuestra muestra presentaba normopeso y actividad física aceptable. Debemos continuar mejorando el patrón alimentario saludable de nuestros adolescentes para garantizar un estado de salud adecuado en el futuro.

Palabras clave:
Dieta mediterránea
Calidad
Ejercicio
Adolescentes
Obesidad

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