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Vol. 28. Issue 5.
Pages 316-325 (September - October 2018)
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Vol. 28. Issue 5.
Pages 316-325 (September - October 2018)
Original Article
Effect of a physical activity programme in the aquatic environment on haemodynamic constants in pregnant women
Efecto de un programa de actividad física en el medio acuático sobre las constantes hemodinámicas en mujeres embarazadas
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Juana María Vázquez-Laraa,
Corresponding author
juani.vazquez@andaluciajunta.es

Corresponding author.
, Carlos Ruiz-Frutosb,c, Luciano Rodríguez-Díaza, Jesús Ramírez-Rodrigod, Carmen Villaverde-Gutiérreze, Gema Torres-Luquef
a Hospital Universitario de Ceuta, Ceuta, Spain
b Departamento de Sociología, Trabajo Social y Salud Pública, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva, Spain
c Universidad Espíritu Santo, Guayaquil, Ecuador
d Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Campus Universitario de Ceuta, Ceuta, Spain
e Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de Granada, Granada, Spain
f Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Jaén, Jaén, Spain
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Figures (1)
Tables (5)
Table 1. Characteristics of the sample. Levels measured at the start of the programme. May to July 2016.
Table 2. Comparison of blood pressure and heart rate in the different measurements and between the experimental group and the control group. May to July 2016.
Table 3. Variation in plasma volume (PV) (Dill and Costill's method) in the different measurements and between the experimental group and the control group. May to July 2016.
Table 4. Plasma and urine sodium levels (mEq/l) in the different measurements and between the experimental and the control group. May to July 2016.
Table 5. Sodium excretion fraction and plasma levels of aldosterone in the different measurements and between the experimental and the control group. May to July 2016.
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Abstract
Objective

To evaluate the effect of a physical activity programme in the aquatic environment with immersion up to the neck, of six weeks duration, on haemodynamic constants in pregnant women.

Methods

A six-week physical activity programme in the aquatic environment was carried out with a total of 46 pregnant women, who were distributed into an experimental group (n=18), which participated in the programme, and a control group (n=28), which followed routine care. In both groups different haemodynamic measurements were evaluated before and after the programme.

Results

At the beginning of the programme the mean systolic blood pressure was similar between groups, but diastolic blood pressure was slightly higher in the experimental group. When the measurements at the last session were compared, arterial pressures (systolic, diastolic and mean) were significantly higher in the control group (p<.050). Similarly, the initial plasma volume values did not differ between groups, but after the intervention, the control group women showed a higher mean (p<.010). The fraction of sodium excretion (FENa) increased significantly in the experimental group, after the programme, with a mean three times higher (p<.050). Aldosterone plasma levels did not show significant differences between the groups in the different measurements.

Conclusion

A programme of swimming and immersion exercises in pregnant women contributes to hydrosaline balance, preventing an excessive increase in usual plasma volume during pregnancy and in the activity of the renin-aldosterone axis.

Keywords:
Exercise
Pregnancy
Immersion
Haemodynamics
Resumen
Objetivo

Evaluar el efecto de un programa de actividad física en el medio acuático con inmersión hasta el cuello, de seis semanas de duración, sobre las constantes hemodinámicas en mujeres gestantes.

Método

Se llevó a cabo un programa de actividad física en el medio acuático, de seis semanas de duración a un total de 46 mujeres embarazadas, que fueron distribuidas en grupo experimental que participó en el programa (n=18) y grupo control (n=28) que desarrolló los cuidados habituales. En los dos grupos se valoraron diferentes medidas hemodinámicas antes y después del programa.

Resultados

Al inicio del programa el promedio de presión arterial sistólica era similar en ambos grupos pero la presión arterial diastólica era ligeramente mayor en el grupo experimental. Cuando se contrastan las medidas en la última sesión, resultan significativamente mayores las presiones arteriales (sistólica, diastólica y media), en el grupo control (p<0,050). De forma similar, los valores iniciales de volumen plasmático no diferían en ambos grupos, pero tras la intervención las mujeres del grupo control evidencian un mayor promedio (p<0,010). La fracción de excreción de sodio (FENa) aumenta significativamente en el grupo experimental, tras la realización del programa, cuyo promedio se triplica (p<0,050). Los niveles plasmáticos de aldosterona no muestran diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en las distintas mediciones.

Conclusión

Un programa de ejercicios de natación e inmersión, en mujeres gestantes, contribuye al equilibrio hidrosalino, previniendo el aumento excesivo de volumen plasmático habitual en el embarazo, y en la actividad del eje renina-aldosterona.

Palabras clave:
Ejercicio
Embarazo
Inmersión
Hemodinámica

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