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Vol. 32. Issue 4.
Pages 225-233 (July - August 2022)
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Vol. 32. Issue 4.
Pages 225-233 (July - August 2022)
Original Article
Effect of the Otago Exercise Programme on the frailty of people between 65 and 80 years old
Efecto del Programa de Ejercicios de Otago en la fragilidad de personas entre 65 y 80 años
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M. Ángeles Cidoncha-Morenoa,
Corresponding author
, M. del Mar Sancho-Senab, Iratxe Baraiaetxaburu-Zarandonab, M. Teresa Busto-Santosc, Isabel Ibáñez-Ruiz de Arcautec, Ana Covadonga González-Pisanod, Otago Working Group
a ISS Bioaraba, Subdirección de Enfermería, Dirección General de Osakidetza, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Álava, Spain
b OSI Barrualde-Galdakao, Galdakao, Bizkaia, Spain
c OSI Araba, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Álava, Spain
d Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias (SESPA), Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
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Abstract
Aim

To evaluate the effect of the Otago Exercise Programme on the frailty of non-institutionalized people between 65 and 80 years of age and study factors associated with frailty.

Method

Pre-post test study (baseline and after 12 months) without control group in people aged 65–80 years (living in the community and with independent ambulation) after being trained in the Otago Exercise Programme in 5 sessions: weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8, and a reinforcement session at 6 months. Patients were recruited from 3 health areas (n = 200). Frailty was assessed with the FRAIL scale.

Results

There were 198 people who started the study and 161 completed the 12-month follow-up. The average age of the sample was 72.28 years; predominance of female sex 64.65%; low educational level 76.50%; people living alone 24.50%; overweight in 42%, and grade I obesity in 32.32%. Significant differences were observed with a P = .023 in the level of frailty between baseline and 12 months. The exploratory analysis identified significant differences before and after the intervention by sex (being a woman) (P = .018) and condition of living alone (P = .0468).

Conclusions

The Otago Exercise Programme prevents positive results in frailty in people 65 to 80 years of age and can help maintain function and prevent deterioration.

Keywords:
Exercise
Frailty
Nursing
Aged
Prevention
Primary care
Resumen
Objetivo

Evaluar el efecto del Programa de Ejercicios de Otago en la fragilidad de personas entre 65 y 80 años no institucionalizadas y estudiar factores asociados a la fragilidad.

Método

Estudio pre-post test (basal y tras 12 meses) sin grupo control en personas de entre 65–80 años (viviendo en la comunidad y con deambulación independiente) tras formarles en el Programa de Ejercicios de Otago en 5 sesiones: semanas 1, 2, 4 y 8, y una sesión de refuerzo a los 6 meses. Los pacientes se reclutaron en 3 áreas de salud (n = 200). La fragilidad se evaluó con la escala FRAIL.

Resultados

Las personas que comienzan el estudio fueron 198 y terminaron el seguimiento de los 12 meses 161. La edad promedio de la muestra fue de 72,28 años; predominio del sexo femenino 64,65%; nivel de estudio bajo 76,50%; personas viviendo solas 24,50%; sobrepeso en el 42% y obesidad grado I en el 32,32%. Se observan diferencias significativas con p = 0,023 en el nivel de fragilidad entre el momento basal y a los 12 meses. El análisis exploratorio permitió identificar diferencias significativas antes y después de la intervención por sexo (ser mujer) (p = 0,018) y condición de vivir solo (p = 0,0468).

Conclusiones

El Programa de Ejercicios de Otago preventa resultados positivos en la fragilidad en personas de 65 a 80 años y puede ayudar a mantener la funcionalidad y evitar su deterioro.

Palabras clave:
Ejercicio
Fragilidad
Enfermeras
Mayores
Prevención
Atención primaria

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