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Vol. 30. Issue 2.
Pages 72-81 (March - April 2020)
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Vol. 30. Issue 2.
Pages 72-81 (March - April 2020)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcle.2019.07.012
Diabetic foot self-care and concordance of 3 diabetic foot risk stratification systems in a basic health area of Gran Canaria
Nivel de autocuidados en pie diabético y concordancia de 3 sistemas de estratificación de riesgo en una zona básica de salud de Gran Canaria
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Héctor González-de la Torrea,
Corresponding author
hegontor@live.com

Corresponding author.
, M. Luana Quintana-Lorenzob, Almudena Lorenzo-Navarrob, Juan José Suárez-Sanchezc, Miriam Berenguer-Pérezd, José Verdú-Sorianod
a Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil de Gran Canaria, Servicio Canario de Salud, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria, Spain
b Gerencia de Atención Primaria de Gran Canaria, ZBS de Santa Brígida, Servicio Canario de Salud, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria, Spain
c Gerencia de Atención Primaria de Gran Canaria, ZBS de Ingenio, Servicio Canario de Salud, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria, Spain
d Departamento de Enfermería Comunitaria, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública e Historia de la Ciencia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante. Spain
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Figures (1)
Tables (4)
Table 1. Frequencies and variables for each of the variables considered.
Table 2. Answers obtained for each of the questions included in the DFSQ-UMA questionnaire.
Table 3. Risk stratification and recoding of values to dichotomous data.
Table 4. Concordance between diabetic foot risk stratification systems. Kappa index, relative risk and Fisher’s exact test.
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Abstract
Objective

To assess the level of self-care in the population with diabetes and determine the risk of diabetic foot lesions through the use of 3 stratification systems as well as to establish the degree of concordance between these systems.

Methods

Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out in the Basic Health Area of Santa Brígida (Gran Canaria-Canary Islands-Spain) in people diagnosed with diabetes (DM Type 1/DM Type 2) (n = 182). Interview, physical examination, review of clinical history and completion of the Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga were carried out. The risk stratification was then calculated using 3 systems (System of the National Institute for Health Care Excellence, Classification of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot and High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool©-2012). The Kappa index was calculated to study the concordance between systems, the relative risk of negative screening of one method against another was estimated and the exact Fisher test to establish whether there were differences.

Results

30.2% of diabetics had a low level of self-care, 45.1% a medium level and 24.7% a high level. The risk levels calculated were: National Institute for Health Care Excellence Classification (Negative Risk 71.4%-Positive Risk 28.6%), International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot Classification (Negative Risk 67.0%-Positive Risk 33.0%) and High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool©(Negative Risk 62.6%-Positive Risk 37.4%).

Conclusions

All 3 systems have good concordance with each other. The High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© only distinguishes 2 levels of risk but detects a higher percentage of people at risk. The Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga may be useful in the context of Primary Care to assess the level of self-care of people with diabetes.

Keywords:
Diabetic foot
Self-care
Risk factors
Resumen
Objetivo

Evaluar el nivel de autocuidados en la población con diabetes y determinar el riesgo de padecer lesiones de pie diabético mediante el uso de 3 sistemas de estratificación, así como establecer el grado de concordancia entre estos sistemas.

Método

Estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo realizado en la Zona básica de salud de Santa Brígida (Gran Canaria, Islas Canarias, España) en personas diagnosticadas de diabetes (DM tipo 1/DM tipo 2) (n = 182). Se realizaron entrevista, exploración física, revisión de la historia clínica y cumplimentación del cuestionario Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga. Tras ello se calculó la estratificación del riesgo con 3 sistemas (sistema del National Institute for Health Care Excellence, clasificación del International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot y High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool©2012). Se calculó el índicekappa para estudiar la concordancia entre sistemas, se estimaron el riesgo relativo de screening negativo de un método frente a otro y el test exacto de Fisher para establecer si existían diferencias.

Resultados

Un 30.2% de los diabéticos tenían un nivel bajo de autocuidados, un 45.1% un nivel medio y un 24.7% nivel alto. Los niveles de riesgo calculados fueron: fueron clasificación National Institute for Health Care Excellence (riesgo negativo 71.4%; riesgo positivo 28.6%), clasificación del International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (riesgo negativo 67.0%; riesgo positive 33.0%) y High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool©(riesgo negativo 62.6%; riesgo positivo 37.4%).

Conclusiones

Los 3 sistemas poseen una buena concordancia entre sí. El High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© solo distingue 2 niveles de riesgo pero detecta mayor porcentaje de personas en situación de riesgo. El cuestionario Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga puede ser útil en el contexto de Atención Primaria para evaluar el nivel de autocuidados de las personas con diabetes.

Palabras clave:
Pie diabético
Autocuidado
Factores de riesgo

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