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Vol. 55. Issue S3.
Tratamiento quirúrgico de la obesidad: recomendaciones prácticas basadas en la evidencia
Pages 1-24 (March 2008)
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Vol. 55. Issue S3.
Tratamiento quirúrgico de la obesidad: recomendaciones prácticas basadas en la evidencia
Pages 1-24 (March 2008)
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Tratamiento quirúrgico de la obesidad: recomendaciones prácticas basadas en la evidencia
Bariatric surgery: evidence-based practical recommendations
Visits
...
M. José Moralesa, M. Jesús Díaz-Fernándezb, Assumpta Caixàsc, Albert Godayd, José Moreiroe, Juan José Arrizabalagaf, Alfonso Calañas-Continenteg, Guillem Cuatrecasash, Pedro Pablo García-Lunai, Lluís Masmiquelj, Susana Monereok, Basilio Morenol, Wilfredo Ricartm, Josep Vidaln, Fernando Cordidoo,??
Corresponding author
fernando_cordido@canalejo.org

Correspondencia: Dr. F. Cordido. Servicio de Endocrinología. Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Juan Canalejo. As Xubias, s/n. 15006 A Coruña. España.
a Sección de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital do Meixoeiro. Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo. Pontevedra. España
b Sección de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital Valle del Nalón. Asturias. España
c Unidad de Diabetes, Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital de Sabadell. Sabadell. Barcelona. España
d Servicio de Endocrinología. Hospital del Mar. Barcelona. España
e Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital Comarcal de Inca. Mallorca. Islas Baleares. España
f Unidad de Nutrición y Dietética. Hospital Txagorritxu. Vitoria-Gasteiz. Álava. España
g Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía. Córdoba. España
h Servicio de Endocrinología. Centro Médico Teknon. Barcelona. España
i Unidad de Nutrición. Unidad de Gestión de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital Universitario Vírgen del Rocío. Sevilla. España
j Sección de Endocrinología. Hospital Son Llàtzer. Palma de Mallorca. Islas Baleares. España
k Sección de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital Universitario de Getafe. Madrid. España
l Unidad de Obesidad. Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón. Madrid. España
m Servicio de Diabetes, Endocrinología y Nutrición. Hospital Universitario Josep Trueta. Girona. España
n Unidad Funcional de Obesidad. Servicio de Endocrinología y Diabetes. Hospital Clínic. Barcelona. España
o Servicio de Endocrinología. Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Juan Canalejo. Departamento de Medicina. Universidad de A Coruña. A Coruña. España
Article information

La obesidad mórbida es, habitualmente, refractaria a los tratamientos convencionales, por lo que la modificación de hábitos dietéticos y de actividad física y/o el uso de fármacos consiguen pérdidas de peso parciales con habitual recuperación posterior. La cirugía bariátrica constituye una opción terapéutica para los casos de obesidad con elevado índice de masa corporal (IMC) asociada a comorbilidades, con buenos resultados a corto y largo plazo.

El Grupo de Trabajo sobre Obesidad de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (GOSEEN) ha elaborado un documento con recomendaciones prácticas basadas en la evidencia para el tratamiento quirúrgico de la obesidad.

La revisión se estructura en 3 partes. En la primera se definen los conceptos de obesidad y comorbilidades asociadas, los tratamientos médicos y sus resultados, las indicaciones y contraindicaciones para el tratamiento quirúrgico con los criterios de selección de los pacientes, el manejo pre y perioperatorio y la valoración de grupos especiales, como adolescentes y personas de edad avanzada. En la segunda parte se describen las distintas técnicas quirúrgicas, las vías de acceso y los resultados comparativos, las complicaciones tanto a corto como a largo plazo, la repercusión de la pérdida ponderal sobre las comorbilidades y los criterios para evaluar la efectividad de la cirugía. En la tercera parte se desarrolla el seguimiento postoperatorio, el control dietético en fases tempranas y más tardías tras la cirugía, y el calendario de control médico y analítico con la suplementación de los distintos macro y micronutrientes en función de la técnica quirúrgica empleada. Se incluye un apartado final sobre gestación y cirugía bariátrica, así como tablas y gráficos complementarios al texto desarrollado.

La cirugía bariátrica sigue siendo un tratamiento discutido para la obesidad, pero los resultados en la corrección del exceso ponderal con mejoría en las patologías asociadas y en la calidad de vida confirman que puede ser el tratamiento de elección en pacientes seleccionados, con la técnica quirúrgica apropiada y con un correcto control pre y postoperatorio.

Palabras clave:
Obesidad mórbida
Cirugía bariátrica
Recomendaciones prácticas
Valoración preoperatoria
Técnicas quirúrgicas
Seguimiento postoperatorio
Gestación y cirugía bariátrica

Morbid obesity is usually refractory to conventional treatments. Consequently, weight that is lost by modifying diet and exercise and/or the use of drugs is usually later regained. Bariatric surgery constitutes a therapeutic option in obese patients with a high body mass index associated with comorbidities and achieves good results in both the short and the long term.

The Obesity Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition has produced a document with practical, evidencebased recommendations for the surgical treatment of obesity.

The review is structured in three parts. The first part defines the concepts of obesity and associated comorbidities, medical treatments, their results, and the indications and contraindications for surgical treatment, as well as the criteria for patient selection, pre- and perisurgical management, and assessment of special groups such as adolescents and the elderly. The second part discusses the different surgical techniques, approaches and comparative results, short- and long-term complications, the repercussions of weight loss on comorbidities, and the criteria for assessing the effectiveness of surgery. The third part discusses postsurgical follow-up, dietary control in the early and subsequent stages after surgery and the schedule for medical and laboratory follow-up, together with the different macro- and micronutrient supplements that should be used depending on the surgical technique employed. A final section is included on pregnancy and bariatric surgery, as well as tables and figures that complement the text.

Although bariatric surgery continues to be a questionable treatment for obesity, the results correcting excess weight, with improvements in associated comorbidities and in quality of life, confirm that this option could be the treatment of choice in selected patients when the appropriate surgical technique and correct preand postoperative follow-up are employed.

Key words:
Morbid obesity
Bariatric surgery
Practical recommendations
Presurgical assessment
Surgical techniques
Postsurgical follow-up
Pregnancy and bariatric surgery
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