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Vol. 30. Issue 6.
Pages 271-279 (November - December 2018)
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Vol. 30. Issue 6.
Pages 271-279 (November - December 2018)
Review article
Influence of the microbiota and probiotics in obesity
Influencia de la microbiota y de los probióticos en la obesidad
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Laia Fontanéa, David Benaigesa,b,c, Albert Godaya,b,c,
Corresponding author
96002@parcdesalutmar.cat

Corresponding author.
, Gemma Llauradóa,b,c, Juan Pedro-Boteta,b,c
a Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
b Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
c Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute] (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain
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Table 1. Use of probiotics for weight control: animal model studies.
Table 2. Use of probiotics for weight control: human studies.
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Abstract

Gut microbiota plays a key role in the control of body weight. In the present review the different ways in which it can modify the energy homeostasis of the host are exposed, based on its capacity to modify the metabolism of the individual and its contribution in the energy consumption regulation. With the current evidence, it is not clear what microbiota profile is associated with the presence of obesity, although in animal models it seems to be related to a higher proportion of bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum, to the detriment of those of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Other factors clearly involved would be the diversity in the gut microbiota or its possible functional changes. More studies in humans are needed to clarify how dysbiosis can influence weight control. On the other hand, probiotics directly affect the gut microbiota, modulating its composition and, possibly, its functionality. A large number of studies in humans have evaluated the impact of probiotics on obesity. Although this intervention may have a potentially beneficial effect, more effort is needed to clarify which strains of probiotics should be recommended, at what dose and for how long.

Keywords:
Obesity
Gut microbiota
Probiotic
Metabolic syndrome
Resumen

La microbiota intestinal tiene un papel determinante en el control del peso corporal. En la presente revisión se exponen las diferentes vías por las que puede modular la homeostasis energética del huésped, en base a su capacidad modificadora del metabolismo del individuo y su contribución en la regulación del aprovechamiento energético. Con las evidencias actuales, no está claro cuál es el perfil de microbiota que se atribuye a la presencia de obesidad, aunque en modelos animales parece relacionarse con una mayor proporción de bacterias del filo Firmicutes, en detrimento de las del filo Bacteroidetes. Otros factores claramente implicados serían la diversidad en la microbiota intestinal o sus posibles cambios funcionales. Son necesarios más estudios en humanos para poder esclarecer cómo la disbiosis puede influir en el control ponderal. Por otra parte, los probióticos afectan directamente la microbiota intestinal, modulando su composición y, posiblemente, su funcionalidad. Un gran número de estudios en humanos han evaluado el impacto de los probióticos en la obesidad. A pesar de que esta intervención puede tener un potencial efecto beneficioso, es preciso esclarecer qué cepas de probióticos deben recomendarse, en qué dosis y durante cuánto tiempo.

Palabras clave:
Obesidad
Microbiota intestinal
Probiótico
Síndrome metabólico

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