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Inicio Allergologia et Immunopathologia The impact of immunomodulatory factors from maternal diet during pregnancy on co...
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Vol. 47. Issue 6.
Pages 570-578 (November - December 2019)
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Vol. 47. Issue 6.
Pages 570-578 (November - December 2019)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2019.04.007
The impact of immunomodulatory factors from maternal diet during pregnancy on cow's milk allergy in offspring – A pilot study in the paediatric population of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship
M. Kuśmiereka,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, I. Sardeckab, E. Łoś-Rycharskaa, A. Krogulskaa
a Department of Pediatrics, Allergology and Gastroenterology, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus UniversityToruń, Poland
b Department of Paediatrics, Allergology, Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
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Tables (3)
Table 1. The immunomodulatory effects of dietary components: vitamin D, folic acid, LC-PUFA [17–19].
Table 2. Characteristics of the study and control groups.
Table 3. Dietary components intake during pregnancy by mothers of offspring with and without CMA, according to the Diet 5 programme and risk of CMA in one factor analysis.
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The key role of dietary factors in immunotolerance promotion and allergic diseases prevention has been emphasised. The aim of the study was the analysis of the impact of immunomodulatory dietary components, consumed by pregnant women, on the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in their offspring.

Materials and methods

Fifty-one pairs of mothers and their CMA-offspring were included in the study group. The analysis of a daily intake of selected dietary components was conducted retrospectively with the application of a seven-day diet of a mother in the third trimester of gestation and the authors’ own questionnaire. The Diet 5.D programme was used.


An average daily retinol intake by study-group mothers was significantly lower than by control-group mothers and valued 375.6μg/d vs. 543.7μg/d (p=0.040), respectively. Folates intake in the study group was 598.8μg/d vs. 361.1μg/d in the control group (p=0.001). Vitamin D in the study group was statistically lower – 3.6μg/d, comparing to the control group – 6.9μg/d (p=0.038). Average LC-PUFA intake by mothers with allergic children was 0.09g/d, while in the control group 0.18g/d (p=0.016). An analysis of the diet revealed that significantly more mothers of children from the control group (n=12; 48%) consumed fish 2–3 times per month in comparison to the study group (n=9; 17.6%) (p=0.007).


Vitamin D, A, LC-PUFA, retinol, riboflavin and fish consumption by pregnant mothers of CMA-children was significantly lower, whereas beta-carotene and folates consumption was significantly higher than that of mothers with non-allergic children.

Cow's milk allergy


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