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Inicio Allergologia et Immunopathologia Risk factors associated to the prevalence of asthma in adolescence*
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Vol. 35. Issue 5.
Pages 193-196 (September 2007)
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Vol. 35. Issue 5.
Pages 193-196 (September 2007)
DOI: 10.1157/13110314
Risk factors associated to the prevalence of asthma in adolescence*
Factores de rıesgo asocıados a la prevalencıa del asma en la adolescencıa
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M. Fernández-Beníteza, J. Antóna, F. Guillén Grimaa
a Department of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Faculty of Medicine. University of Navarra. Pamplona. Spain.
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The ISAAC project (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) was developed with the purpose of determining the prevalence of asthma in schoool children, with the definition of two age groups: infancy, when asthma is more frequent, and adolescence, when mortality associated to asthma is greater. However, the study does not address the risk factors associated with this pathology. Our aim is to comparatively analyze the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the asthma epidemiological factors in the two age groups and in both sexes. Since the results of ISAAC Phase I are available, we can study the variations in risk factors, relating them to the current prevalence of asthma. The prevalence of bronchial asthma in our adolescents is 10 % ­ this implying a significant increase with respect to the data corresponding to ISAAC Phase I. Likewise, the prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months has also increased significantly with respect to the data corresponding to ISAAC Phase I. It can be affirmed that familial antecedents of asthma are significantly correlated to the fact of having experienced asthma at some point in time, or to wheezing in the previous 12 months. In the same way as for bronchial asthma, the increase in rhinitis has been significant. The presence of animals in the home is significantly associated to the fact of having experienced asthma at some point in time, though the presence of animals in the home has decreased significantly. An encouraging finding in our study is the fact that smoking has decreased significantly among adolescents in comparison with the previous data. However, the same does not apply to smoking among parents, which shows results similar to those recorded in the previous study ­ with an influence upon the same habit in the offspring. As in other studies, active smoker status is seen to be associated with the fact of having experienced asthma at some point in time. Although a common observation, the importance of hyper-responsiveness with exercise among adolescents is still not acknowledged, despite its significant correlation to the fact of having experienced asthma at some point in time, or wheezing in the previous 12 months.
Keywords:
Asthma
Prevalence
Adolescence
ISAAC
Risk
Diet
Domestic pets
Smoking
Atopy
Respiratory infection
Virus
Rhinitis
Con el objetivo de conocer la prevalencia del asma en la edad escolar surge el proyecto ISAAC, en el que se incluyen dos grupos de edad, la infancia cuando el asma es más frecuente y la adolescencia periodo en que la mortalidad por asma es mayor. Sin embargo el estudio no incide en los factores de riesgo que están asociados a esta patología. Nuestro objetivo es analizar comparativamente los dos grupos de edad y en ambos sexos, la prevalencia de la sintomatología respiratoria y de los factores relacionados con la epidemiología del asma. Como disponemos de los resultados de la Fase I, podemos estudiar las variaciones en cuanto a los factores de riesgo y relacionarlo con la prevalencia del asma en la actualidad. La prevalencia de asma bronquial en nuestros adolescentes es de 10% habiéndose incrementado de forma significativa en relación con la Fase I del ISAAC. De la misma forma, encontramos que la prevalencia de sibilancias en los últimos doce meses también se ha incrementado de forma significativa con relación a los estudios de la Fase I. Se puede seguir afirmando que los antecedentes familiares de asma se asocian de forma significativa con haber presentado asma alguna vez o sibilancias en los últimos 12 meses. Al igual que ocurre con el asma bronquial, el incremento de la rinitis ha sido significativo La presencia de animales en el domicilio se asocia significativamente con haber presentado asma alguna vez, sin embargo la presencia de animales en las casas ha disminuido de forma significativa. Analizando nuestros resultados podemos decir, gratamente, que el hábito de fumar en los adolescentes ha disminuido de forma significativa en relación con nuestros datos anteriores. No ocurre lo mismo con el hábito de fumar en los padres que se mantiene similar al primer estudio, influyendo en el mismo hábito de los hijos. Al igual que en otros estudios, encontramos que ser fumador activo se asocia con haber presentado asma alguna vez. La hiperreactividad con el ejercicio en los adolescentes, tan frecuentemente observada, sigue sin ser reconocida a pesar de que se asocia de forma significativa a haber presentado asma alguna vez, o sibilancias en los últimos 12 meses.

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