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Journal Information
Vol. 44. Issue 6.
Pages 489-496 (November - December 2016)
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Vol. 44. Issue 6.
Pages 489-496 (November - December 2016)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.04.008
Repercussions of preterm birth on symptoms of asthma, allergic diseases and pulmonary function, 6–14 years later
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C. Gonçalvesa, G. Wandalsenb, F. Lanzab, A.L. Goularta, D. Soléb, A. dos Santosa,
Corresponding author
ameliamiyashiro@yahoo.com.br

Corresponding author.
a Department of Pediatrics – Neonatal Division of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
b Department of Pediatrics – Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology – Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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Tables (6)
Table 1. Children's demographic and clinical characteristics.
Table 2. Prevalence of current asthma, rhinitis, flexural eczema and positive skin test among studied children and history of atopic diseases in their parents.
Table 3. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) of altered parameters of pulmonary function among included children (n=84).
Table 4. Children's characteristics and parents’ history of atopy according to the result of pulmonary function.
Table 5. Univariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with altered pulmonary function.
Table 6. Final model of logistic regression analysis for factors associated with altered pulmonary function.
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Abstract
Background

Prevalence of allergic diseases and impaired pulmonary function may be high in children born prematurely. This study aimed to assess pulmonary function and prevalence of asthma, atopic diseases and allergic sensitisation in these patients.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted with children aged 6–14 years who were born prematurely with birth weight <2000g from January 2008 to May 2011. Exclusion criteria were: major malformations, or acute respiratory disorders. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was applied followed by allergic skin prick test and spirometry.

Results

The study included 84 children aged 9.3±2.3 years born at mean gestational age of 31.8±2.4 weeks. The prevalence of current asthma was 25%, more severe asthma was 15.5%; rhinitis was 38.1%; flexural eczema was 8.3%; and a positive skin-prick test was 69.6%. Frequencies of children with values <80% of predicted were: FVC (8.3%), FEV1 (22.6%), and FEV1/FVC ratio (16.7%). Prevalence of children with FEF25–75% <70% of the predicted value was 32.4%, positive bronchodilator response was observed in 20.5% of cases, and altered pulmonary function in 42.9%. Factors associated with altered pulmonary function were oxygen dependency at 28 days of life (OR: 4.213, p=0.021), the presence of wheezing in childhood (OR: 5.979, p=0.014) and infant's height (OR: 0.945, p=0.005).

Conclusions

There was a high prevalence of severe asthma, allergic sensitisation, and altered pulmonary function among children and adolescents born prematurely. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and a history of wheezing were risk factors for altered pulmonary function.

Keywords:
Atopic hypersensitivity
Asthma
Child
Premature
Pulmonary function
Spirometry

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