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Vol. 44. Issue 3.
Pages 263-275 (May - June 2016)
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Vol. 44. Issue 3.
Pages 263-275 (May - June 2016)
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DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2015.05.008
Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures
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F. Vegaa,
Corresponding author
fvega13@hotmail.com

Corresponding author.
, C. Panizob, M.T. Dordalc,d, M.L. Gonzáleze, E. Velázquezf,g, A. Valeroh, M.C. Sánchezi, C. Rondónj, J. Montorok, V. Matheul, M. Lluch-Bernalm, R. Gonzálezl, B. Fernández-Parran, A. Del Cuvilloo, I. Dávilap, C. Colásq, P. Campoj, E. Antónr, A.M. Navarros, Rhinoconjunctivitis Committee of Spanish Society of Allergology, Clinical Immunology (SEAIC) 2010
a Department of Allergy, Hospital de la Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain
b Department of Allergy, Hospital Nuestra Señora del Prado, Toledo, Spain
c Department of Allergy, Hospital Municipal Badalona, Spain
d Department of Allergy, Sant Pere Claver Fundació Sanitaria, Barcelona, Spain
e Department of Allergy, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
f QUIRON Sagrado Corazón, Sevilla, Spain
g Hospital Victoria Eugenia Cruz Roja, Sevilla, Spain
h Department of Pneumology and Allergy, Hospital Clínic i Universitari, Barcelona, Spain
i Department of Allergy, CE Virgen de la Cinta, Huelva, Spain
j U.G.C. Allergy, IBIMA, Regional University Hospital of Málaga, UMA, Málaga, Spain
k Allergy Unit, Hospital Universitario Arnau de Vilanova, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Católica de Valencia “San Vicente Mártir”, Valencia, Spain
l Department of Allergy, Hospital del Tórax-Ofra, HUNS La Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
m Department of Allergy, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Toledo, Spain
n Department of Allergy, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, León, Spain
o Asthma and Rhinitis Unit, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital de Jerez, Cádiz, Spain
p Department of Allergy, Hospital Universitario, IBSAL, Salamanca, Spain
q Department of Allergy, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Zaragoza, Spain
r Department of Allergy, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain
s UGC Alergología Sevilla, Hospital el Tomillar, Sevilla, Spain
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Tables (4)
Table 1. The most relevant studies and key messages.
Table 2. Syndromes associated with allergy to both aeroallergens and food allergens.
Table 3. Pathogenic mechanisms described in respiratory allergy (rhinitis and asthma) associated with food allergy.
Table 4. Feeding recommendations for the perinatal period.
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Abstract

Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction.

Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions.

Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions.

Keywords:
Allergic asthma
Allergic rhinitis
Breastfeeding
Epidemiology
Food allergy
Prevalence
Respiratory allergy
Solid foods

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