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Vol. 48. Issue 2.
Pages 187-193 (March - April 2020)
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Vol. 48. Issue 2.
Pages 187-193 (March - April 2020)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2019.08.002
Peak nasal inspiratory flow in children with allergic rhinitis. Is it related to the quality of life?
H. Sikorska-Szaflik
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, B. Sozańska
1st Department and Clinic of Paediatrics, Allergology and Cardiology, Wroclaw Medical University, ul. Chalubinskiego 2a, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland
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Figures (2)
Tables (4)
Table 1. Patients characteristics.
Table 2. Results of the assessment of child’s quality of life on the KINDL-R questionnaire.
Table 3. Values of linear correlation coefficients (r) of PNIFadj. with the assessment of the quality of life made by children and parents (PNIFadj.- PNIF adjusted to body height).
Table 4. Values of Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the PNIF and children quality of life assessed by parents and children.
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Introduction and Objectives

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease in childhood. Nasal obstruction is a typical symptom of AR, however, its quantification by clinical examination is difficult. To provide an objective assessment of nasal patency, the peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) is used. Symptoms of AR have a noticeable impact on the quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess which factors may have an impact on PNIF values and to evaluate the possible relationships between PNIF and QoL in children with AR.

Patients and Methods

We recruited patients aged 6–17 years (n = 208, 89 girls and 119 boys) with AR. All children underwent PNIF measurements. Parents and children completed KINDL-R generic questionnaires, to assess the quality of life of the children.


The average PNIF value was 98.9 ± 37.4 L/min. A very strong (p < 0.001) relationship between the PNIF value and height, age and weight of the child was observed. The sex of the patient has no influence on the PNIF value. We showed that PNIF values significantly increased with each attempt. The children assessed their QoL at 45.6 ± 8.5 points in the KINDL-R questionnaire and the parents rated their children’s QoL at 73.7 ± 10.7 points. We observed a weak negative correlation between PNIF and the QoL based on the parents’ assessment and the child’s self-assessment.


PNIF values depend mostly on height, but also on the child’s age and weight. A learning effect (significant increase in PNIF upon each attempt) was shown. Higher PNIF does not improve the QoL.

Allergic rhinitis
Peak nasal inspiratory flow
Quality of life
KINDL-R questionnaire


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