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Vol. 45. Issue 4.
Pages 405-413 (July - August 2017)
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Vol. 45. Issue 4.
Pages 405-413 (July - August 2017)
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.003
Nutrition in the first 1000 days and respiratory health: A descriptive review of the last five years’ literature
E. Verducia,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, A. Martellib, V.L. Minielloc, M. Landid,e, B. Mariania, M. Brambillaa, L. Diaferioc, D.G. Peronif
a Department of Paediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
b Paediatric Unit, Garbagnate Hospital, Garbagnate, Italy
c Department of Paediatrics, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bari, Italy
d Primary Care Paediatrics, Turin, Italy
e Unit Research of Paediatric Pulmonology and Allergy, Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, National Research Council, Palermo, Italy
f Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, Italy
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Effects of breastfeeding on respiratory infections and asthma.
Table 2. Micro and macronutrients intake and respiratory health outcomes during the first 1000 days of life.
Table 3. Dietary patterns and respiratory health outcomes during the first 1000 days of life.
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The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health respiratory effects of nutrients and dietary patterns during the first 1000 days from conception. Population of interest included children from birth to two years and their mothers (during pregnancy and lactation). Studies were searched on MEDLINE® and Cochrane database, inserting individually and using the Boolean ANDs and ORs, ‘nutrients’, ‘micronutrients’, ‘LC-PUFA’, ‘Mediterranean Diet’, ‘human milk’, ‘complementary food’, ‘pregnancy’, ‘respiratory disease’, ‘pulmonary disease’, ‘asthma’, ‘epigenetics’, ‘first 1000 days’, ‘maternal diet’ and ‘respiratory health’. All sources were retrieved between 01-09-2015 and 07-12-2016. While unhealthy maternal dietary patterns (high fat intake) during pregnancy can result in alteration of foetal lung development, with increased risk of respiratory disorders, Mediterranean diet has been associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Breastfeeding has beneficial effects on respiratory infections while evidences about its protective effect on allergic disorders are unclear. During complementary feeding there is no evidence to avoid or encourage exposition to ‘highly allergenic’ foods to have modification of tolerance development. In children from birth to two years of age, Mediterranean diet has been associated with a lower risk of atopy, wheezing and asthma. Micronutrients, antioxidant and LCPUFA supplementation is not recommended and a whole food approach should be preferred, except for Vitamin D.

First 1000 days
Human milk
Maternal diet
Mediterranean diet
Respiratory health
Respiratory disease


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