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Inicio Allergologia et Immunopathologia Factors associated with wheezing among Lebanese children: Results of a cross-sec...
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Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2020.02.003
Available online 11 May 2020
Factors associated with wheezing among Lebanese children: Results of a cross-sectional study
Diana Malaeb1,a,b,*, Souheil Hallit1,c,d,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, Hala Sacred,e, Rabih Hallitc,f,g, Pascale Salamehd,h,i
a School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon
b Life sciences and health department, Paris-Est University, Paris, France
c Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK), Jounieh, Lebanon
d INSPECT-LB: Institut National de Santé Publique, Epidémiologie Clinique et Toxicologie – Liban, Beirut, Lebanon
e Drug Information Center, Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon, Beirut, Lebanon
f Infectious Disease Department, Bellevue Medical center, Mansourieh, Lebanon
g Infectious Disease Department, Notre-Dame Des Secours University Hospital, Byblos, Lebanon
h Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
i Faculty of Medicine, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Bivariate analysis of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors associated with wheezing in children.
Table 2. Bivariate analysis of other factors associated with wheezing in children.
Table 3. Multivariable analysis.
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In Lebanon, asthma is underdiagnosed due to low access to healthcare, particularly in rural areas, although asthma diagnosis in children is based mainly on clinical symptoms. Thus, wheezing might be more suggestive of undiagnosed respiratory diseases including asthma in Lebanese children. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with wheezing in Lebanese children without asthma diagnosis.


This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and April 2016, enrolling a total of 1203 schoolchildren.


Out of 1500 prepared questionnaires, 1380 questionnaires were distributed in schools, and 1203 (87.17%) were collected back from the parents of children aged between 4–17 years old. The sample included 42 (3.5%) [95% CI 0.025–0.045] children with reported chronic wheezing. A multivariable analysis was performed taking the presence versus absence of wheezing in children as the dependent variable. The results showed that spraying pesticides at home (aOR=1.91), presence of humidity at home (aOR=2.21) and child reflux (aOR=2.60) were significantly associated with the presence of wheezing in children.


The findings of the study suggest that certain environmental factors, such as pesticides, humidity at home and reflux disease, might be associated with wheezing episodes in children. Those factors can be prevented through raising awareness by health care professionals.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)


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