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Inicio Allergologia et Immunopathologia Changes over time in the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema in ado...
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Vol. 44. Issue 5.
Pages 439-444 (September - October 2016)
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Vol. 44. Issue 5.
Pages 439-444 (September - October 2016)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.02.006
Changes over time in the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema in adolescents from Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil (2005–2012): Relationship with living near a heavily travelled highway
M.F. Toledoa,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, B.M. Saraiva-Romanholob,c, R.C. Oliveirad, P.H.N. Saldivae, L.F.F. Silvae, L.F.C. Nascimentoa, D. Soléf
a Department of Medicine, University of Taubaté (UNITAU), Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil
b Experimental Therapeutic Laboratory I (LIM 20), Department of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
c University City of Sao Paulo (UNICID), São Paulo, Brazil
d Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
e Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
f Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Escola Paulista de Medicina – Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
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Table 1. Prevalence of asthma-related symptoms, of rhinitis-related symptoms and of eczema ever among adolescents by study year.

The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing. We evaluated temporal trends in the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in adolescents (13–14 years) living in Taubaté, SP, Brazil (2005–2012) and assessed the relationship between these prevalences and the residential proximity to Presidente Dutra Highway (PDH, a heavily travelled highway).


This cross-sectional study of adolescents (N=1039) from public and private schools was evaluated using the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) plus a question about their place of residence in relation to PDH. The data obtained were compared to the 2005 data using a chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. An analysis by groups consisting of two phases (two-step cluster) was used to evaluate the effect of living near PDH.


There was a lifetime increase in the prevalence of active asthma (15.3% vs. 20.4%, p=0.005) and physician-diagnosed asthma (6.8% vs. 9.2%, p=0.06) and a decrease in the symptoms of active rhinitis (36.6% vs. 18.5%) between 2005 and 2012. A high frequency of asthma and rhinitis (18.1% vs. 23.2%, respectively) was observed among adolescents living close or very close to PDH; furthermore, 85.6% of the adolescents without symptoms of asthma or rhinitis lived far from PDH.


An increase in the prevalence of asthma and a decrease in the prevalence of rhinitis were observed during the studied period. Living near PDH was associated with higher rates of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema.

Air pollution
Heavy traffic


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