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Vol. 48. Issue 3.
Pages 223-231 (May - June 2020)
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Vol. 48. Issue 3.
Pages 223-231 (May - June 2020)
Original Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2019.06.003
Asthma prevalence and risk factors in school children: The RESPIR longitudinal study
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Julia Alfonsoa,
Corresponding author
juliaalfonso@hotmail.com
alfonso_juldie@gva.es

Corresponding author. Pediatric Pneumology and Allergy Unit, La Ribera University Hospital, Carretera de Corbera Km 1. 46600 - Alzira, Valencia (Spain)
, Santiago Pérezb, Ricardo Bouc, Ana Amatd, Irene Ruizd, Amparo Morad, Silvia Escolanoe, Laura Chofref
a Pediatric Pneumology and Allergy Unit, La Ribera University Hospital, Alzira, Valencia, Spain
b Division of Neonatology, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia, Spain
c Division of Epidemiology, La Ribera University Hospital, Alzira, Valencia, Spain
d Division of Pediatrics, La Ribera University Hospital, Alzira, Valencia, Spain
e Valterna Clinic, Paterna, Valencia, Spain
f Division of Pediatrics, La Marina Hospital, Denia, Alicante, Spain
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Characteristics of the participants in the cohort.
Table 2. Risk factors associated to the presence of asthma at 6 years of age. Bivariate analysis.
Table 3. Risk factors associated to the presence of asthma at 6 years of age. Multivariate analysis. Logistic regression model.
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Abstract
Objectives

To analyze the incidence of wheezing in the first six years of life; the prevalence of asthma at six years of age; and the associated risk factors, in a population from Valencia, Spain.

Methods

A prospective longitudinal study was made of a cohort of 636 newborn infants, with follow-up of the clinical records and the completion of questionnaires up to the age of six years.

Results

The prevalence of asthma at six years of age was 12.8%. Up until that age, 63% of the study population had experienced at least one episode of wheezing, and 35% had suffered recurrent wheezing (three or more episodes). Admission due to wheezing was associated to school asthma. The following risk factors were identified: atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.1; 95%CI: 1.2-3.5), the presence of at least one episode of wheezing in the first year (OR: 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-2.9), prematurity (OR: 2.5; 95%CI: 1.2-5.1), and a family history of asthma (OR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.2-4.1).

Conclusions

The prevalence of asthma at six years of age in our population is similar to that described in other longitudinal studies. An important increase is observed in the cumulative incidence of wheezing and of recurrent wheezing up to three years of age, followed by stabilization. The most relevant risk factors for developing asthma at six years were atopic dermatitis, wheezing during the first year, prematurity, and a family history of asthma. Full-term pregnancy and the minimization of respiratory infections at an early age could reduce the prevalence of asthma at six years of age in our population.

Keywords:
Wheezing
Asthma
Risk factors
Epidemiology

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