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Journal Information
Vol. 45. Issue 8.
Pages 524-529 (October 2021)
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Vol. 45. Issue 8.
Pages 524-529 (October 2021)
Review article
DOI: 10.1016/j.acuroe.2021.07.001
Artificial intelligence and simulation in urology
Inteligencia artificial y simulación en urología
J. Gómez Rivasa,c,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, C. Toribio Vázquezb, C. Ballesteros Ruizb, M. Taratkinc,d, J.L. Marencoc,e, G.E. Cacciamanic,f, E. Checcuccic,g, Z. Okhunovc,h, D. Enikeevd, F. Espertoi, R. Grossmannc,j, B. Somanik, D. Venezianoc,l
a Departamento de Urología, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
b Departamento de Urología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain
c Young Academic Urologist-Urotechnology Working Party (ESUT-YAU), European Association of Urology, Arnhem, The Netherlands
d Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscú, Russia
e Departamento de Urología, Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia, Spain
f Catherine and Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States
g Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy
h Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States
i Department of Urology, Campus Biomedico, University of Rome, Roma, Italy
j Eastern Maine Medical Center, Bangor, ME, United States
k Department of Urology, University Hospital Southhampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
l Department of Urology and Kidney Transplant, Grande Ospedale Metropolitano, Reggio Calabria, Italy
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Tables (1)
Table 1. Key points about the usage of Artificial Intelligence in Urology.
Introduction and objective

Artificial intelligence (AI) is in full development and its implementation in medicine has led to an improvement in clinical and surgical practice. One of its multiple applications is surgical training, with the creation of programs that allow avoiding complications and risks for the patient. The aim of this article is to analyze the advantages of AI applied to surgical training in urology.

Material and methods

A literary research is carried out to identify articles published in English regarding AI applied to medicine, especially in surgery and the acquisition of surgical skills.


Surgical training has evolved over time thanks to AI. A model for surgical learning where skills are acquired in a progressive way while avoiding complications to the patient, has been created. The use of simulators allows a progressive learning, providing trainees with procedures that increase in number and complexity. On the other hand, AI is used in imaging tests for surgical or treatment planning.


Currently, the use of AI in daily clinical practice has led to progress in medicine, specifically in surgical training.

Artificial intelligence
Machine learning
Introducción y objetivo

La inteligencia artificial (IA) está en pleno desarrollo, y su implementación en la medicina ha supuesto una mejora en la práctica clínica y quirúrgica. Una de sus múltiples aplicaciones es el entrenamiento quirúrgico, con la creación de programas que permiten evitar complicaciones y riesgos para el paciente. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las ventajas de la IA aplicada al entrenamiento quirúrgico en urología.

Material y métodos

Se realiza una revisión de la literatura de los artículos publicados en inglés sobre la IA aplicada a la medicina, especialmente a la cirugía y a la adquisición de habilidades quirúrgicas.


El entrenamiento quirúrgico ha evolucionado con el tiempo gracias a la IA. Se ha creado un modelo de aprendizaje quirúrgico en el que las habilidades se adquieren de forma gradual, evitando complicaciones al paciente. El uso de simuladores permite un aprendizaje progresivo en el que la cantidad y la complejidad de los procedimientos aumentan progresivamente. Adicionalmente, la IA se utiliza en pruebas de imagen para planificar cirugías o tratamientos.


Actualmente el uso de la IA en la práctica clínica diaria supone un avance en la medicina, y en particular en la formación quirúrgica.

Palabras clave:
Inteligencia artificial
Aprendizaje automático


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