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doi: 10.1016/S0048-7120(02)73281-7
Terapia ocupacional en los programas de rehabilitación cardíaca
Occupational therapy in the cardiac rehabilitation programs
R. M.ª Martínez Piédrola,, , M. Pérez De Heredia Torres**, J.C. Miangolarra Page***
* Profesora Asociada. Unidad de Docencia e Investigación de Fisioterapia y Terapia Ocupacional. Diplomada en Terapia Ocupacional.
** Profesora Interina de Escuela Universitaria. Unidad de Docencia e Investigación de Fisioterapia y Terapia Ocupacional. Diplomada en Terapia Ocupacional.
*** Catedrático de Escuela Universitaria. Responsable de la Unidad de Docencia e Investigación de Fisioterapia y Terapia Ocupacional. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos. Madrid.
Recibido 18 mayo 2001, Aceptado 05 marzo 2002
Resumen

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares pertenecen al grupo de las enfermedades crónicas, procesos que durante este siglo ocupan los primeros lugares como causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en los países desarrollados; a diferencia de lo que sucede actualmente en los países en desarrollo donde las enfermedades transmisibles siguen constituyendo el mayor problema sanitario.

Después de numerosos estudios epidemiológicos acerca de los efectos beneficiosos del ejercicio físico sobre la cardiopatía isquémica, los Programas de Rehabilitación Cardíaca fueron reconocidos y recomendados por la OMS en los años cincuenta. Estos programas consisten en un conjunto de actuaciones multifactoriales cuya finalidad es reducir la mortalidad y la morbilidad. Además, se centran en mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes y hacen posible que éstos puedan reincorporarse a la sociedad de una forma más rápida.

A diferencia de otros tipos de programas más simples en cuanto a los profesionales que los integran, los programas transdisciplinarios aseguran la eficacia y la continuidad de los pacientes en ellos.

En este artículo de revisión nos centramos en el papel significativo que juega la Terapia Ocupacional y en las técnicas terapéuticas que utiliza en cada una de las fases de la Rehabilitación Cardíaca, dirigidas a reconstruir la vida coti-diana del paciente y sus planes de vida.

Summary

The cardiovascular diseases belong to the group of chronic diseases, conditions that occupy the first places as a cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries during this century, on the contrary to that which presently occurs in the developing countries in which transmissible diseases continue to be the major health care problem.

After the many epidemiological studies regarding the beneficial effects of physical exercise on ischemic heart disease, the Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs were recognized and recommended by the WHO in the 1950’s. These programs consist in a combination of multifactorial actions whose objective is to reduce mortality and morbidity. In addition, they focus on improving the quality of life of the patients and making it possible for them to be able to return to the society as quickly as possible.

On the contrary to other types of simpler programs in regards to the professionals who form a part of them, the transdisciplinary programs assure the efficacy and continuity of the patients in them.

In this review article, we focus on the significant role played by Occupational Therapy and the therapeutic techniques that are used in each one of the phases of the Cardiac Rehabilitation and that are aimed at reconstructing the daily life of the patient and their life plans.

Palabras clave
Rehabilitación cardíaca, Enfermedades cardiovasculares, Terapia Ocupacional
Key words
Cardiac rehabilitation, Cardiovascular diseases, Occupational Therapy
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Copyright © 2002. Sociedad Española de Rehabilitación y Medicina Física (SERMEF) y Elsevier España, S.L.