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Allergologia et Immunopathologia
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Inicio Allergologia et Immunopathologia Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance
Journal Information
Vol. 43. Num. 5.September - October 2015
Pages 427-526
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Vol. 43. Num. 5.September - October 2015
Pages 427-526
Review
DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2015.05.001
Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance
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E. Kovacova-Hanuskova, T. Buday, S. Gavliakova, J. Plevkova
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Comenius University in Bratislava, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathophysiology, Mala Hora, 036 01 Martin, Slovakia
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Table 1. Sources of histamine and possible causes of increase of concentration in organism.
Table 2. Symptoms of histamine intolerance.
Table 3. Diagnosis of HIT.
Table 4. Therapy of histamine intolerance.
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Abstract

Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1–H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life.

Keywords:
Histamine intolerance
Histamine
Scombroid poisoning
Diamine oxidase

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